Ecological and morphological diversification within single species and character displacement in Mandarina, endemic land snails of the Bonin Islands



The endemic land snail species Mandarina hahajimana has undergone extensive habitat and morphological diversification within the Hahajima islands in the Bonin archipelago. This species has diversified into populations with ground, arboreal and semi-arboreal life histories. In addition, arboreal populations and semi-arboreal populations show diversification in preferences of species and positions of the tree on which they are found. Shell morphologies of M. hahajimana exhibit remarkable geographical variation, and they have a clear relationship with their life histories. The morphological variation of M. hahajimana results from adaptation to different lifestyles. The habitats of these populations influence the relationships with other species of Mandarina coexisting with M. hahajimana. This suggests that the morphological and ecological divergence within M. hahajimana has been induced by competitive interaction with other species of Mandarina. Character displacement may have played an important role in promoting adaptive radiation of Mandarina in the Bonin Islands.