Large amounts of genetic variation for wing length and wing area were demonstrated both within and between Drosophila melanogaster populations along a latitudinal gradient in South America. Wing length and wing area showed a strong positive correlation with latitude in both wild flies and laboratory-raised descendants. Large population differences were observed for heritability and coefficient of variation of these two traits, whereas relatively small population differences were found for development time, viability, pupal mortality, sex ratio and their norms of reaction to four developmental temperatures. No clear-cut latitudinal clines were established for these life-history characters. These results are discussed in the light of Bergmann's Rule and the relation between larval development and adult body size.