SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Abrams, P. 1991. The fitness costs of senescence: the evolutionary importance of events in early adult life. Evol. Ecol. 5: 343 360.
  • 2
    Abrams, P.A. & Ludwig, D. 1995. Optimality theory, Gompertz’ Law, and the disposable-soma theory of senescence. Evolution 49: 1055 1066.
  • 3
    Austad, S.N. 1993. Retarded senescence in an insular population of Virginia Oppossums (Didelphis virginiana). J. Zool. 299: 695 708.
  • 4
    Cantor, A.B. 1992. Sample size calculations for the log rank test: a Gompertz model approach. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 45: 1131 1136.
  • 5
    Carey, J.R., Liedo, P., Orozco, D., Vaupel, J.W. 1992. Slowing of mortality rates at older ages in large medfly cohorts. Science 258: 457 461.
  • 6
    Casagrande, J.T., Pike, M.C., Smith, P.G. 1978. An improved approximate formula for calculating sample sizes for comparing binomial distributions. Biometrics 34: 483 486.
  • 7
    Caswell, H. 1989. Matrix Population Models. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.
  • 8
    Charlesworth, B. 1990. Optimization models, quantitative genetics, and mutation. Evolution 44: 520 538.
  • 9
    Charlesworth, B. 1994. Evolution in Age-Structured Populations, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press., Cambridge.
  • 10
    Charlesworth, B. & Hughes, K.A. 1996. Age-specific inbreeding depression and components of genetic variance in relation to the evolution of senescence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93: 6140 6145.
  • 11
    Charnov, E.L. 1993. Life History Invariants: Some Explorations of Symmetry in Evolutionary Ecology. Oxford University Press., Oxford.
  • 12
    Chiang, C.L. 1984. The Life Table and its Applications, Krieger Publishing, Malabar, FL.
  • 13
    Comfort, A. 1979. The Biology of Senescence, 3rd edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
  • 14
    Curtsinger, J.W., Fukui, H.H., Khazaeli, A.A., Kirscher, A., Pletcher, S.D., Promislow, D.E.L., Tatar, M. 1995. Genetic variation and aging. Ann. Rev. Genet. 29: 553 575.
  • 15
    Curtsinger, J.W., Fukui, H.H., Townsend, D.R., Vaupel, J.W. 1992. Demography of genotypes: Failure of the limited life-span paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 258: 461 463.
  • 16
    Curtsinger, J.W., Service, P.M., Prout, T. 1994. Antagonistic pleiotropy, reversal of dominance, and genetic polymorphism. Amer. Natur. 144: 210 228.
  • 17
    Elandt-Johnson, R. & Johnson, N.L. 1980. Survival Models and Data Analysis. Wiley, New York.
  • 18
    Finch, C.E. 1990. Longevity, Senescence and the Genome. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • 19
    Finch, C.E., Pike, M.C., Witten, M. 1990. Slow mortality rate accelerations during aging in some animals approximate that of humans. Science 249: 902 906.
  • 20
    Fisher, R.A. 1930. The Genetical Theory of Selection. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • 21
    Fukui, H.H., Ackert, L., Curtsinger, J.W. 1996. Deceleration of age-specific mortality rates in chromosomal homozygotes and heterozygotes of Drosophila melanogaster. Exp. Gerentol. 31: 517 531.
  • 22
    Fukui, H.H., Xiu, L., Curtsinger, J.W. 1993. Slowing of age-specific mortality rates in Drosophila melanogaster. Exp. Gerentol. 28: 585 599.
  • 23
    Gaillard, J.-M., Allainé, D., Pontier, D., Yoccoz, N.G., Promislow, D.E.L. 1994. Senescence in natural populations of mammals: a comment. Evolution 48: 509 516.
  • 24
    Gaines, S.D. & Denny, M.W. 1993. The largest, smallest, highest, lowest, longest, and shortest – extremes in ecology. Ecology 74: 1677 1692.
  • 25
    Gavrilov, L.A. & Gavrilova, N.S. 1991. The Biology of Life Span: a Quantitative Approach. Harwood Academic Publishers, New York.
  • 26
    Gompertz, B. 1825. On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality and on a new mode of determining life contingencies. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 1825: 513 585.
  • 27
    Hamilton, W.D. 1966. The moulding of senescence by natural selection. J. Theor. Biol. 12: 12 45.
  • 28
    Harvey, P.H. & Zammuto, R.M. 1985. Patterns of mortality and age at first reproduction in natural populations of mammals. Nature 315: 319 320.
  • 29
    Horiuchi, S. & Wilmoth, J.R. 1997. Age patterns of the life table aging rate for major causes of death in Japan, 1951–90. J. Gerentol. 52A: B67 B77.
  • 30
    Hughes, K.A. 1995. The evolutionary genetics of male life-history characters in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 49: 521 537.
  • 31
    Hughes, K.A. & Charlesworth, B. 1994. A genetic analysis of senescence in Drosophila. Nature 367: 64 66.
  • 32
    Johnson, T.E. 1990. Increased life-span of age-1 mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans and lower Gompertz rate of aging. Science 249: 908 912.
  • 33
    Kannisto, V., Lauritsen, J., Vaupel, J.W. 1994. Reductions in mortality at advanced ages. Several decades of evidence from 27 countries. Population Devel. Rev. 20: 793 810.
  • 34
    Kirkwood, T.B.L. 1977. Evolution and ageing. Nature 270: 301 304.
  • 35
    Kraemer, H.C. 1987. How Many Subjects?: Statistical Power Analysis in Research. Sage Publications, Newbury Park.
  • 36
    Lande, R. 1988a. Demographic models of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). Oecologia 75: 601 607.
  • 37
    Lande, R. 1988b. Genetics and demography in biological conservation. Science 241: 1455 1460.
  • 38
    Lee, E.T. 1992. Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
  • 39
    Lewontin, R.C. 1965. Selection for colonizing ability. In: The Genetics of Colonizing Species (H. G. Baker & G. L. Stebbings, eds), pp. 79–94. Academic Press, New York.
  • 40
    Luckinbill, L.S., Arking, R., Clare, M.J., Cirocco, W.J., Buck, S.A. 1984. Selection for delayed senescence in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 38: 996 1003.
  • 41
    Markow, T.A. 1996. Evolution of Drosophila mating systems. In: Evolutionary Biology (M. K. Hecht, ed.), pp. 73–106. Plenum Press, New York.
  • 42
    Medawar, P.B. 1952. An Unsolved Problem in Biology. H. K. Lewis. London.
  • 43
    Mueller, L.D., Nusbaum, T.J., Rose, M.R. 1995. The Gompertz equation as a predictive tool in demography. Exp. Gerontol. 30: 553 569.
  • 44
    Orr, W.C. & Sohal, R.S. 1994. Extension of life-span by overexpression of superoxide dismutase and catalase in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 263: 1128 1130.
  • 45
    Partridge, L. 1987. Is accelerated senescence a cost of reproduction? Functional Ecology 1: 317 320.
  • 46
    Partridge, L. & Andrews, R. 1985. The effect of reproductive activity on the longevity of male Drosophila melanogaster is not caused by an acceleration of ageing. J. Insect Physiol. 31: 393 395.
  • 47
    Partridge, L., Green, A., Fowler, K. 1987. Effects of egg-production and of exposure to males on female survival in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Insect Physiol. 33: 745 749.
  • 48
    Partridge, L. & Harvey, P. 1985. Costs of reproduction. Nature 316: 2020.
  • 49
    Promislow, D.E.L. 1991. Senescence in natural populations of mammals: a comparative study. Evolution 45: 1869 1887.
  • 50
    Promislow, D.E.L. & Harvey, P.H. 1991. Mortality rates and the evolution of mammal life histories. Acta Oecologica 12: 119 137.
  • 51
    Promislow, D.E.L. & Tatar, M. 1998. Mutation and senescence. Where genetics and demography meet. Genetica 102/103: 299 314.
  • 52
    Promislow, D.E.L., Tatar, M., Khazaeli, A., Curtsinger, J.W. 1996. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Mortality. Genetics 143: 839 848.
  • 53
    Reznick, D. 1985. Costs of reproduction: an evaluation of the empirical evidence. Oikos 44: 257 267.
  • 54
    Rose, M.R. 1982. Antagonistic pleiotropy, dominance, and genetic variation. Heredity 48: 63 78.
  • 55
    Rose, M. 1985. Life history evolution with antagonistic pleiotropy and overlapping generations. Theor. Pop. Biol. 28: 342 358.
  • 56
    Rose, M.R. 1991. Evolutionary Biology of Aging. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 57
    Rose, M. & Charlesworth, B. 1981. Genetics of life-history evolution in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Exploratory selection experiments. Genetics 97: 187 196.
  • 58
    Sæther, B.-E. 1988. Evolutionary adjustment of reproductive traits to survival rates in European birds. Nature 331: 616 617.
  • 59
    Shouman, R. & Witten, M. 1995. Survival estimates and sample size: What can we conclude? J. Gerontol.: Biol. Sci. 50A: B177 B185.
  • 60
    Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J. 1995. Biometry, 3rd edn. W.H. Freeman, New York.
  • 61
    Tatar, M. & Carey, J.R. 1995. Nutrition mediates reproductive trade-offs with age-specific mortality in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Ecology 76: 2066 2073.
  • 62
    Tatar, M., Carey, J.R., Vaupel, J.W. 1993. Long term cost of reproduction without accelerated senescence in Callosobruchus maculatus: analysis of age-specific mortality. Evolution 47: 1302 1312.
  • 63
    Tatar, M. & Promislow, D.E.L. 1997. Fitness costs of female reproduction. Evolution 51: 1323 1326.
  • 64
    Thatcher, A.R. 1992. Trends in numbers and mortality at high ages in England and Wales. Population Studies 46: 411 426.
  • 65
    Vaupel, J.W. 1990. Relatives’ risks: frailty models of life history data. Theoretical Population Biol. 37: 220 234.
  • 66
    Williams, G.C. 1957. Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution 11: 398 411.
  • 67
    Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
  • 68
    Zelterman, D., Grambsch, P.M., Le, C.T., Ma, J.Z., Curtsinger, J.W. 1994. Piecewise exponential survival curves with smooth transitions. Mathematical Biosci. 120: 233 250.