SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Andow, R., Baker, J. & Lane, C.P., eds. 1994. Karner Blue Butterfly: Symbol of a Vanishing Landscape. Misc. Publ. 84–1994. Minn. Agric. Exp. Stat., University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
  • 2
    Arnold, R.A. 1993. The Lotis Blue, Lycaeides Idas Lotis (Lintner). In: Conservation Biology of the Lycaenidae (Butterflies) (T. R. New, ed.), Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission no. 8.
  • 3
    Arnold, M.L. 1997. Natural Hybridization and Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • 4
    Ball, R.M., James, F.C., Freeman, S., Bermingham, E. & Avise, J.C. 1988. Phylogeographic population structure of Red-winged Blackbirds assessed by mitochondrial DNA. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 15581562.
  • 5
    Ball, R.M. Jr & Avise, J.C. 1992. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeographic differentiation among avian populations and the evolutionary significance of subspecies. Auk 109: 626636.
  • 6
    Ballmer, G.R. & Pratt, G.F. 1988. A survey of last instar larvae of the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) of California. J. Res. Lepidoptera 27: 181.
  • 7
    Collins, M.M. 1997. Hybridization and speciation in Hyalophora (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): a reappraisal of W. R. Sweadner's classic study of a hybrid zone. Ann. Carnegie Museum 66: 411455.
  • 8
    Coyne, J.A. 1992. Genetics and speciation. Nature 355: 511515.
  • 9
    Coyne, J.A. & Orr, H.A. 1989. Patterns of Speciation in Drosophila. Evolution 43: 362381.
  • 10
    Crow, J.F. & Aoki, K. 1984. Group selection for a polygenic behavioral trait: estimating the degree of subdivision. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 81: 60736077.
  • 11
    Cunningham, C.W., Blackstone, N.W. & Buss, L.W. 1992. Evolution of King Crabs from Hermit Crab ancestors. Nature 355: 539542.
  • 12
    Ehrlich, P.R. & Raven, P.H. 1969. Differentiation of populations. Science 165: 12281232.
  • 13
    Excoffier, L., Smouse, P.E. & Quattro, J.M. 1992. Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics 131: 479491.
  • 14
    Felsenstein, J. 1989. Phylip – phylogeny inference package. Cladistics 5: 164166.
  • 15
    Ferris, C.D. 1989. (Suppl.)to: a catalogue/checklist of the butterflies of America north of Mexico. The Lepidopterists’ Society, Memoir no. 3.
  • 16
    Ferris, C.D. & Brown, F.M., eds. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
  • 17
    Fry, A.J. & Zink, R.M. 1998. Geographic analysis of nucleotide diversity and song sparrow (Aves: Emberizidae) population history. Mol. Ecol. 7: 13031313.
  • 18
    Garth, J.S. & Tilden, J.W. 1986. California Butterflies. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • 19
    Higgins, L.G. 1985. The correct name for what has been called Lycaeides argyrognomon in North America. J. Lep. Soc. 39: 145146.
  • 20
    Hillis, D.M., Mable, B.K., Larson, A., Davis, S.K. & Zimmer, E.A. 1996. Nucleic acids IV: sequencing and cloning. In: Molecular Systematics (D. M. Hillis, C. Moritz & B. K. Mable, eds). Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.
  • 21
    Kocher, T.D., Thomas, W.K., Meyer, A., Edwards, S.V., Pääbo, S., Villablanca, F.X. & Wilson, A.C. 1989. Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 61966200.
  • 22
    Kosswig, C. 1947. Selective mating as a factor for speciation in Cichlid fish of east African lakes. Nature 159: 40444044.
  • 23
    Lane, C.P. 1994. Habitat preferences of the Karner Blue Butterfly in Minnesota. In: Karner Blue Butterfly: Symbol of a Vanishing Landscape. Misc. Publ. 84–1994 (R. Andow, J. Baker & C. P. Lane, eds). Minn. Agric. Exp. Stat., University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
  • 24
    Lane, C.P. & Weller, C.P. 1994. A review of Lycaeides Hubner and Karner Blue Butterfly taxonomy. In: Karner Blue Butterfly: Symbol of a Vanishing Landscape. Misc. Publ. 84–1994 (R. Andow, J. Baker & C. P. Lane, eds). Minn. Agric. Exp. Stat., University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
  • 25
    Lewis, P.O. & Zaykin, D. 1997. Genetic Data Analysis: computer program for the analysis of allelic data, Version 1.0. Free program distributed by the authors over the internet from the GDA homepage at http://chee.unm.edu/gda/.
  • 26
    Ludwig, J.A. & Reynolds, J.F. 1988. Statistical Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  • 27
    Mayr, E. 1942. Systematics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • 28
    Mayr, E. 1963. Animal Species and Evolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • 29
    Miller, L.D. & Brown, F.M. 1981. A catalogue/checklist of the butterflies of America north of Mexico. The Lepidopterists’ Society, Memoir no. 2.
  • 30
    Nabokov, V. 1949. The nearctic members of Lycaeides Hübner (Lycaenidae, Lepidoptera). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoo. 101: 479541.
  • 31
    Nei, M. 1978. Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89: 583590.
  • 32
    Niegel, J.E. & Avise, J.C. 1986. Phylogenetic relationships of mitochondrial DNA under various demographic models of speciation. In: Evolutionary Processes and Theory (E. Nevo & S. Karlin, eds). Academic Press, New York.
  • 33
    Opler, P. 1992. A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
  • 34
    Palumbi, S. 1996. Nucleic acids II: the polymerase chain reaction. In: Molecular Systematics (D. M. Hillis, C. Moritz & B. K. Mable, eds). Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.
  • 35
    Porter, A.H. & Geiger, H. 1988. Genetic and phenotypic population structure of the Coenonympha tullia complex (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) in California: no evidence for species boundaries. Can. J. Zool. 66: 27512765.
  • 36
    Porter, A.H. & Mattoon, S.O. 1989. A new subspecies of Coenonympha tullia (Müller) (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) confined to the coastal dunes of northern California. J. Lep. Soc. 43: 229238.
  • 37
    Porter, A.H. & Shapiro, A.M. 1990. Genitalia and arthropod taxonomy: lack of mechanical isolation in a butterfly hybrid zone (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 82: 107114.
  • 38
    Rejmánek, M. & Richardson, D.M. 1996. What attributes make some plants species more invasive? Ecology 77: 16551661.
  • 39
    Scott, J.A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America, a Natural History and Fieldguide. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
  • 40
    Seutin, G., Ratcliffe, L.M. & Boag, P.T. 1995. Mitochondrial DNA homogeneity in the phenotypically diverse Redpoll Finch complex (Aves: Carduelinae: Carduelis flammea-hornemanni). Evolution 49: 962973.
  • 41
    Shaklee, J.B., Allendorf, F.W., Morizot, D.C. & Whitt, G.S. 1990. Gene nomenclature for protein-coding loci in fish. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 119: 215.
  • 42
    Shapiro, A.M. 1974. Natural and laboratory occurrence of ‘elmyi’ phenotypes in Cynthia cardui (Nymphalidae). J. Res. Lep. 13: 5762.
  • 43
    Shapiro, A.M. 1976. Photoperiod and temperature in phenotype determination of pacific slope pierini: biosystematic implications. J. Res. Lep. 16: 193200.
  • 44
    Shapiro, A.M. 1978. The assumption of adaptivity in genital morphology. J. Res. Lep. 17: 6872.
  • 45
    Shapiro, A.M. 1990. The life histories and behavior of the Patagonian-Fuegian white butterflies Hypsochila macrodice and H. galactodice (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). J. New York Entomol. Soc. 98: 461473.
  • 46
    Shapiro, A.M. 1991. Ball Mountain revisited: anomalous species richness of a montane barrier zone. J. Res. Lep. 29: 143156.
  • 47
    Shapiro, A.M. 1995. From the mountains to the prairies to the ocean white with foam: Papilio zelicaon makes itself at home. In: Genecology and Ecogeographic Races (A. R. Kruckeberg, R. B. Walker & A. E. Leviton, eds). Pacific Division AAAS, San Francisco, California.
  • 48
    Shapiro, A.M. & Geiger, H. 1986. Electrophoretic confirmation of the species status of Pontia protodice and P. occidentalis (Pieridae). J. Res. Lep. 25: 3947.
  • 49
    Shapiro, A.M. & Porter, A.H. 1989. The lock-and-key hypothesis: evolutionary and biosystematic interpretation of insect genitalia. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 34: 231245.
  • 50
    Shepard, J.H. 1964. The genus Lycaeides in the Pacific Northwest. J. Res. Lepidoptera 3: 2536.
  • 51
    Simon, C., Frati, F., Beckenbach, A., Crespi, B., Liu, H. & Flook, P. 1994. Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 87: 651701.
  • 52
    Slatkin, M. 1987. Gene flow and the geographic structure of natural populations. Science 236: 787792.
  • 53
    Slatkin, M. 1993. Isolation by distance in equilibrium and non-equilibrium populations. Evolution 47: 264279.
  • 54
    Sneath, P.H.A. & Sokal, R.R. 1973. Numerical Taxonomy. W. B. Freeman, San Francisco.
  • 55
    Snedecor, G.W. & Cochran, W.G. 1967. Statistical Methods, 6th edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
  • 56
    Sperling, F.A.H. 1994. Sex-linked genes and species differences in Lepidoptera. Can. Entomol. 126: 807818.
  • 57
    Stanford, R.E. & Opler, P.A. 1996. Atlas of Western USA Butterflies, Including Adjacent Parts of Canada and Mexico. Denver and Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • 58
    Swofford, D.L. 1993. Paup: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, Version 3.1.1 computer program distributed by the Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois.
  • 59
    Swofford, D.L. & Selander, R.B. 1981. A computer program for the analysis of allelic variation in genetics. J. Heredity 72: 281283.
  • 60
    Thorpe, J.P. 1983. Enzyme variation, genetic distance and evolutionary divergence in relation to levels of taxonomic separation. In: Protein Polymorphism: Adaptive and Taxonomic Significance (G. S. Oxford & D. Rollinson, eds), Systematics Association, Vol. no. 24. Academic Press, London.
  • 61
    Tilden, J.W. & Smith, A.C. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
  • 62
    US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. Department of the Interior. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Determination of endangered status for the Karner blue butterfly. Final rule. Federal Register December 14, 1992, 57 (240): 5923644.
  • 63
    Weir, B.S. 1996. Genetic Data Analysis. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland Massachusetts.
  • 64
    Weir, B.S. & Cockerham, C.C. 1984. Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution 38: 13581370.
  • 65
    West-Eberhard, M.J. 1983. Sexual selection, social competition, and speciation. Quart. Rev. Biol. 58: 155183.
  • 66
    Wright, S. 1951. The genetical structure of populations. Ann. Eugen. 15: 323354.
  • 67
    Zink, R.M. & Dittman, D.L. 1993. Gene flow, refugia, and evolution of geographic variation in the Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia). Evolution 47 (3): 717729.
  • 68
    Zink, R.M., Rootes, W.L. & Dittman, D.L. 1991. Mitochondrial DNA variation, population structure, and evolution of the Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula). Condor 93: 318329.