SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Brakefield, P.M. 1997. Phenotypic plasticity and fluctuating asymmetry as responses to environmental stress in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. In: Environmental Stress, Adaptation and Evolution (R. Bijlsma & V. Loeschcke, eds), pp. 65–78. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel.
  • 2
    Brakefield, P.M. & Breuker, C.J. 1996. The genetical basis of fluctuating asymmetry for developmentally integrated traits in a butterfly eyespot pattern. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B 263: 15571563.
  • 3
    Brakefield, P.M., Gates, J., Keys, D., Kesbeke, F., Wijngaarden, P.J., Monteiro, A., French, V. & Carroll, S.B. 1996. Development, plasticity and evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns. Nature 384: 236242.
  • 4
    Brakefield, P.M., Kesbeke, F. & Koch, P.B. 1998. The regulation of phenotypic plasticity of eyespots in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Am. Nat. 152: 853860.
  • 5
    Brakefield, P.M. & Larsen, T.B. 1984. The evolutionary significance of dry and wet season forms in some tropical butterflies. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 22: 112.
  • 6
    Brakefield, P.M. & Mazzotta, V. 1995. Matching field and laboratory environments: effects of neglecting daily temperature variation on insect reaction norms. J. Evol. Biol. 8: 559573.
  • 7
    De Jong, G. 1995. Phenotypic plasticity as a product of selection in a variable environment. Am. Nat. 145: 493512.
  • 8
    DeWitt, T.J., Sih, A. & Wilson, D.S. 1998. Costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity. Trends Ecol. Evol. 13: 7781.
  • 9
    Dingle, H. & Winchell, R. 1997. Juvenile hormone as a mediator of plasticity in insect life histories. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 35: 359373.DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1520-6327(1997)35:4<359::aid-arch2>3.0.co;2-n
  • 10
    Falconer, D.S. & Mackay, T.F.C. 1996. Introduction to quantitative genetics, 4th edn. Longman, Harlow.
  • 11
    Fry, J.D. 1992. The mixed-model analysis of variance applied to quantitative genetics: biological meaning of the parameters. Evolution 46: 540550.
  • 12
    Holloway, G.J. & Brakefield, P.M. 1995. Artificial selection of reaction norms of wing pattern elements in Bicyclus anynana. Heredity 74: 9199.
  • 13
    Holloway, G.J., Brakefield, P.M. & Kofman, S. 1993. The genetics of wing pattern elements in the polyphenic butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. Heredity 70: 179186.
  • 14
    Koch, P.B., Brakefield, P.M. & Kesbeke, F. 1996. Ecdysteroids control eyespot size and wing color pattern in the polyphenic butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera: Satyridae). J. Insect Physiol. 42: 223230.
  • 15
    Kooi, R.E. & Brakefield, P.M. 1999. The critical period for wing pattern induction in the polyphenic tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Satyrinae). J. Insect Physiol. 45: 201212.
  • 16
    Levins, R. 1968. Evolution in Changing Environments. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • 17
    Nijhout, H.F. 1994. Insect Hormones. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • 18
    Nijhout, H.F. 1999a. Control mechanisms of polyphenic development in insects. Bioscience 49: 181192.
  • 19
    Nijhout, H.F. 1999b. When developmental pathways diverge. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 53485350.
  • 20
    Rice, W.R. 1989. Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43: 223225.
  • 21
    Roskam, J.C. & Brakefield, P.M. 1999. Seasonal polyphenism in Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Satyridae) butterflies: different climates need different different cues. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 66: 345356.
  • 22
    Saccheri, I.J., Brakefield, P.M. & Nichols, R.A. 1996. Severe inbreeding depression and rapid fitness rebound in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Satyridae). Evolution 50: 20002013.
  • 23
    Saccheri, I.J. & Bruford, M.W. 1993. DNA fingerprinting in a butterfly, Bicyclus anynana (Satyridae). J. Hered. 84: 195200.
  • 24
    Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J. 1995. Biometry, 3rd edn. W.H. Freeman, New York.
  • 25
    Van Oosterhout, C., Zijlstra, W.G., Van Heuven, M.K. & Brakefield, P.M. 2000. Inbreeding depression and genetic load in laboratory metapopulations of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Evolution 54: 218225.
  • 26
    Van Tienderen, P.H. 1991. Evolution of generalists and specialists in spatially heterogeneous environments. Evolution 45: 13171331.
  • 27
    Van Tienderen, P.H. & Koelewijn, H.P. 1994. Selection on reaction norms, genetic correlations and constraints. Genet. Res., Camb. 64: 115125.
  • 28
    Via, S. 1984. The quantitative genetics of polyphagy in an insect herbivore. II. Genetic correlations in larval performance within and among host plants. Evolution 38: 896905.
  • 29
    Via, S., Gomulkiewicz, R., De Jong, G., Scheiner, S.M., Schlichting, C.D. & Van Tienderen, P.H. 1995. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity: consensus and controversy. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10: 212217.
  • 30
    Via, S. & Lande, R. 1985. Genotype–environment interaction and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Evolution 39: 505522.
  • 31
    Wijngaarden, P.J. & Brakefield, P.M. 2000. The genetic basis of eyespot size in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: an analysis of line crosses. Heredity 85: 171179.
  • 32
    Wijngaarden, P.J. & Brakefield, P.M. 2001. Lack of response to artificial selection on the slope of reaction norms for seasonal polyphenism in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Heredity 87: 410420.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2540.2001.00933.x
  • 33
    Windig, J.J. 1993. The genetic background of plasticity in wing pattern of Bicyclus butterflies. PhD Thesis, Leiden University, Leiden.
  • 34
    Windig, J.J. 1994. Genetic correlations and reaction norms in wing pattern of the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Heredity 73: 459470.
  • 35
    Windig, J.J., Brakefield, P.M., Reitsma, N. & Wilson, J.G.M. 1994. Seasonal polyphenism in the wild: survey of wing patterns in five species of Bicyclus butterflies in Malawi. Ecol. Entomol. 19: 285298.
  • 36
    Zera, A.J. 1999. The endocrine genetics of wing polymorphism in Gryllus: critique of recent studies and state of the art. Evolution 53: 973977.