Fluctuating asymmetry in a secondary sexual trait: no associations with individual fitness, environmental stress or inbreeding, and no heritability
Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2002
Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 16, Issue 1, pages 101–113, January 2003
How to Cite
Kruuk, L. E. B., Slate, J., Pemberton, J. M. and Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2003), Fluctuating asymmetry in a secondary sexual trait: no associations with individual fitness, environmental stress or inbreeding, and no heritability. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 16: 101–113. doi: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2003.00503.x
- Issue online: 11 DEC 2002
- Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2002
- Received 24 April 2002;accepted 6 August 2002
- 1987. Early development and population dynamics in red deer. II. Density-independent effects and cohort variation. J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 69–81. , &
- 2000. Temporal changes in the key factor and the key age group influencing population dynamics. J. Anim. Ecol. 69: 1099–1110. , , , , &
- 1994. Sexual Selection. Monographs in Behaviour and Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
- 2000. What does sexual trait FA tell us about stress? Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 163–166. , &
- 2001. Fluctuating asymmetry in antlers of Alaskan moose: size matters. J. Mammal. 82: 814–824. , , &
- 2000. Fluctuating asymmetry, size and mating success in males of Ischnura elegans (Vander Linden) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Anim. Behav. 59: 177–182. , , &
- 1982. The functions of antlers. Behaviour 70: 108–125.
- 1982. Red Deer – Behaviour and Ecology of Two Sexes. University Chicago Press, Chicago. , &
- 1987a. Interactions between population density and maternal characteristics affecting fecundity and juvenile survival in red deer. J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 857–871. , &
- 1987b. Early development and population dynamics in red deer. I. Density-dependent effects on juvenile survival. J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 53–67. , , &
- 2001. Life-history correlates of horn asymmetry in mountain goats. J. Mammal. 82: 389–400. &
- 1997. Population substructure, local density, and calf winter survival in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Ecology 78: 852–863. , , , &
- 1998. Microsatellites reveal heterosis in red deer. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sic. 265: 489–495. , , , , , &
- 1999. Measurement biases and fluctuating asymmetry estimates. Anim. Behav. 57: 251–253. , , &
- 1998. How repeatable is the estimation of individual fluctuating asymmetry? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sic. 263: 1423–1427.
- 1995. Population history, genetic variability, and horn grown in bighorn sheep. Cons. Biol. 9: 314–323. , &
- 1998. Population dynamics of Norwegian red deer: density-dependence and climatic variation. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sic. 265: 341–350. , , &
- 1998. Population dynamics of large herbivores: variable recruitment with constant adult survival. Trends Ecol. Evol. 13: 58–63. , &
- 1993. Fluctuating asymmetry and lifetime mating success are correlated in males of the damselfly Coenagrion puella (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Ecol. Entom. 18: 198–202. &
- 1991. Evolutionary Genetics and Environmental Stress. Oxford University Press, Oxford. &
- 1987. Estimation of variance components with quasi-continuous data using Bayesian methods. J. Anim. Breed General 104: 334–349. , &
- 1998. High enthusiasm and low R-squared. Evolution 52: 1872–1876.
- 1995. Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation and relationships to regional temperature and precipitation. Science 269: 676–679.
- 1999a. Population density affects sex ratio variation in red deer. Nature 399: 459–461. , , , &
- 1999b. Early determinants of lifetime reproductive success differ between the sexes in red deer. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sic. 266: 1655–1661. , , &
- 2000. Heritability of fitness in a wild mammal population. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97: 698–703. , , , , &
- 2002. Antler size in red deer: heritability and selection, but no evolution. Evolution 56: 1683–1695. , , &
- 1998. Antler asymmetry and immunity in reindeer. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 44: 135–142. &
- 1996. Climate, plant phenology and variation in age of first reproduction in a temperate herbivore. J. Anim. Ecol. 65: 653–670. , , &
- 1997. A search for quantitative trait loci affecting asymmetry of mandibular characters in mice. Evolution 51: 957–969. , &
- 2002. An epistatic genetic basis for fluctuating asymmetry of mandible size in mice. Evolution 56: 642–653. , &
- 1954. Genetic Homeostasis. Oliver and Boyd, London.
- 1998. Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts. &
- 1994. Fluctuating asymmetry in antlers of fallow deer, Dama dama, indicates dominance. Anim. Behav. 47: 258–250. &
- 1992. Male size, developmental stability and mating success in natural populations of 3 Drosophila species. Heredity 69: 122–127. &
- 1996. Sexual selection and a secondary sexual character in two Drosophila species. Anim. Behav. 52: 759–766. , &
- 1998. Statistical confidence for likelihood-based paternity inference in natural populations. Mol. Ecol. 7: 639–655. , , &
- 1995. Fluctuating asymmetry and measurement error. Syst. Biol. 44: 97–101. &
- 1985. Maximum likelihood estimation of variance components for a multivariate mixed model with equal design matrices. Biometrics 41: 153–165.
- 1980. Fluctuating asymmetry in male sexual ornaments may reliably reveal male quality. Anim. Behav. 40: 1185–1187.
- 1993. Fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection. Genetica 89: 267–279. &
- 1997. Asymmetry, Developmental Stability and Evolution. Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford. &
- 1997. A meta-analysis of the heritability of developmental stability. J. Evol. Biol. 10: 1–16. &
- 1998. Bilateral symmetry and sexual selection: a meta-analysis. Am. Nat. 151: 174–192. &
- 1996. Horn asymmetry and fitness in gemsbok, Oryx g. Gazella. Behav. Ecol. 7: 247–253. , , &
- 1999. Detecting publication bias in meta-analyses: a case study of fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection. Am. Nat. 154: 220–233.
- 1986. Fluctuating asymmetry: measurement, analysis, pattern. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Sys. 17: 391–421. &
- 1992. Fluctuating asymmetry – a biological monitor of environmental and genomic stress. Heredity 68: 361–364.
- 1998. Asymmetry in antler size in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): an index of individual and population conditions. Oecologia 116: 1–8. &
- 2000. What, if anything, does visual asymmetry in fallow deer antlers reveal? Anim. Behav. 59: 193–199. &
- 1998. Genotyping from antlers. Honours Thesis, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.
- 1995. A resolution of the lek paradox. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sic. 260: 21–29. &
- 1999. Climatic variability, plant phenology and northern ungulates. Ecology 80: 1322–1339. &
- 1989. Analysing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43: 223–225.
- 1998. Cohort variation in male survival and lifetime mating success in red deer. J. Anim. Ecol. 67: 979–986. , &
- 2001. The influence of density and weather on antler length in yearling red deer. Oecologia 127: 191–197. , , &
- 2000. Inbreeding depression influences lifetime breeding success in a wild population of red deer (Cervus elaphus). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sic. 267: 1657–1662. , , , &
- 1993. Fluctuating asymmetry in the antlers of moose (Alces alces) – does it signal male quality? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sic. 254: 251–255. &
- 1982. Allometric variation 1. The theory and some consequences. Am. Nat. 120: 751–764.
- 1998. The relative importance of size and asymmetry in sexual selection. Behav. Ecol. 9: 546–551. &
- 1996. The heritability of fluctuating asymmetry and the genetic control of developmental stability. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sic. 263: 849–854.
- 1999. The association between fluctuating asymmetry, trait variability, trait heritability, and stress: a multiply replicated experiment on combined stresses in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 53: 493–505. , , &
- 2002. Fluctuating asymmetry, fecundity and development time in Drosophila: is there an association under optimal and stress conditions? J. Evol. Biol. 15: 146–157. , , &