SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abrams, P.A., Leimar, O., Nylin, S. & Wiklund, C. 1996. The effect of flexible growth rates on optimal sizes and development times in a seasonal environment. Am. Nat. 147: 381395.
  • Bacher, C. & Baud, J.P. 1992. Intensive rearing of juvenile oysters Crassostrea gigas in an upwelling system: optimization of biological production. Aquat. Living Resour. 5: 8998.
  • Bartlett, B.R. 1979. Biochemical changes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1795) during larval development and metamorphosis. Proc. Natn. Shellfish Ass. 69: 202.
  • Barton, N.H. & Turelli, M. 1989. Evolutionary quantitative genetics: how little do we know? Ann. Rev. Genet. 23: 337370.
  • Becker, W.A. 1984. Manual of Quantitative Genetics. Academic Enterprises, Pullman.
  • Berven, K.A. 1987. The heritable basis of variation in larval developmental patterns within population of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica). Evolution 41: 10881097.
  • Berven, K.A. & Gill, D.E. 1983. Interpreting geographic variation in life-history traits. Am. Zool. 23: 8597.
  • Borash, D.J., Teotónio, H., Rose, M.R. & Mueller, L.D. 2000. Density-dependent natural selection in Drosophila: correlations between feeding rate, development time and viability. J. Evol. Biol. 13: 181187.
  • Boudry, P., Collet, B., Cornette, F., Hervouet, V. & Bonhomme, F. 2002. High variance in reproductive success of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) revealed by microsatellite-based parentage analysis of multifactorial crosses. Aquaculture 204: 283296.
  • Chippindale, A.K., Leroi, A.M., Saing, H., Borash, D.J. & Rose, M.R. 1997. Phenotypic plasticity and selection in Drosophila life-history evolution. 2. Diet, mates and the cost of reproduction. J. Evol. Biol. 10: 269293.
  • Collet, B., Boudry, P., Thebault, A., Heurtebise, S., Morand, B. & Gérard, A. 1999. Relationship between pre- and post-metamorphic growth in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). Aquaculture 175: 215226.
  • Crisp, D.J. 1976. The role of the pelagic larva. In: Perspectives in Experimental Biology. Vol. 1. Zoology (D.P.Spencer, ed.), pp. 145155. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
  • Dagnelie, P. 1998. Statistique théorique et appliquée. Tome 2 – Inférence statistique à une et à deux dimensions. De Boeck et Larcier, Paris et Bruxelles.
  • Dempster, E.R. & Lerner, I.M. 1950. Heritability of threshold characters. Genetics 35: 212236.
  • Dufty, A.M., Clobert, J. & Møller, A.P. 2002. Hormones, developmental plasticity and adaptation. Trends Evol. Ecol. 17: 190196.
  • Ebenman, B. 1992. Evolution in organisms that change their niches during the life cycle. Am. Nat. 139: 9901021.
  • Efron, B. & Tibshirani, R. 1993. An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Felsenstein, J. 1976. The theoretical population genetics of variable selection and migration. Ann. Rev. Genet. 10: 253280.
  • Forrest, T.G. 1987. Insect size tactics and developmental strategies. Oecologia 73: 178184.
  • Frankham, R. 1990. Are responses to artificial selection for reproductive fitness characters consistently asymmetrical? Genet. Res. 56: 3542.
  • Gallager, S.M. & Mann, R. 1986. Growth and survival of larvae of Mercenaria mercenaria (L) and Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) relative to broodstock conditioning and lipid content of eggs. Aquaculture 56: 105121.
  • Gallager, S.M., Mann, R. & Sasaki, G.S. 1986. Lipid as an index of growth and viability in three species of bivalve larvae. Aquaculture 56: 81103.
  • Gebhardt, M.D. & Stearns, S.C. 1988. Reaction norms for developmental time and weight at eclosion in Drosophila mercatorum. J. Evol. Biol. 1: 335354.
  • Gérard, A., Naciri, Y., Peignon, J.M., Ledu, C. & Phelipot, P. 1994. Optimization of triploid induction by the use of 6-DMAP for the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). Aquacult. Fish. Manag. 25: 709719.
  • Giangrande, A., Geraci, S. & Belmonte, G. 1994. Life-cycle and life-history diversity in marine invertebrates and the implications in community dynamics. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol.: Annu. Rev. 32: 305333.
  • Gillespie, J.H. & Turelli, M. 1989. Genotype–environment interactions and the maintenance of polygenic variation. Genetics 121: 129138.
  • Hadfield, M.G. & Strathmann, M.F. 1996. Variability, flexibility and plasticity in life histories of marine invertebrates. Oceanol. Acta 19: 323334.
  • Hilbish, T.J., Winn, E.P. & Rawson, P.D. 1993. Genetic variation and covariation during larval and juvenile growth in Mercenaria mercenaria. Mar. Biol. 115: 97104.
  • Hill, W.G. & Thompson, R. 1978. Probabilities of non-positive definite between-group or genetic covariance matrices. Biometrics 34: 429439.
  • Holland, D.L. & Spencer, C.P. 1973. Biochemical changes in fed and starved oysters, Ostrea edulis L., during larval development metamorphosis and early spat growth. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 51: 287298.
  • Karlsson, B. 1994. Feeding habits and change of body composition with age in three nymphalid butterfly species. Oikos 69: 224230.
  • Lannan, J.E. 1980. Broodstock management of Crassostrea gigas. I. Genetic and environmental variation in survival in the larval rearing system. Aquaculture 21: 323336.
  • Lynch, M. & Walsh, B. 1998. Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland.
  • Manly, B.F.J. 1997. Randomization, Bootstrap, and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology. 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Massot, M., Clobert, J., Chambon, A. & Michalakis, Y. 1994. Vertebrate natal dispersal: the problem of non-independence of siblings. Oikos 70: 172176.
  • McCullagh, P. & Nelder, J.A. 1989. Generalized Linear Models.Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability No. 37. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Moller, H., Smith, R.H. & Sibly, R.M. 1989. Evolutionary demography of a bruchid beetle. I. Quantitative genetic analysis of the female life history. Funct. Ecol. 3: 637681.
  • Moran, N.A. 1994. Adaptation and constraint in the complex life cycles of animals. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 25: 573600.
  • Morey, S. & Reznick, D. 2001. Effects of larval density on postmetamorphic spadefoot toads (Spea hammondii). Ecology 82: 510522.
  • Nascimento, I. 1983. Growth of the larvae of Crassostrea gigas Thunberg fed with different algal species at high cell concentrations. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 39: 134139.
  • Newkirk, G.F. & Haley, L.E. 1982. Phenotypic analysis of the European oyster Ostrea edulis L.: relationship between length of the larval period and postsettling growth rate. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 59: 177184.
  • Newkirk, G.F., Haley, L.E., Waugh, D.L. & Doyle, R. 1977. Genetics of larvae and spat growth rate in the oyster Crassostrea virginica. Mar. Biol. 41: 4952.
  • Newman, R.A. 1988. Genetic variation for larval anuran (Scaphiopus couchii) development time in an uncertain environment. Evolution 42: 763773.
  • Newman, R.A. 1994. Effects of changing density and food level on metamorphosis of a desert amphibian, Scaphiopus couchii. Ecology 75: 10851096.
  • Nunney, L. 1996. The response to selection for fast development in Drosophila melanogaster and its effect on adult weight: an example of a fitness trade-off. Evolution 50: 11931204.
  • Pechenik, J.A. 1984. The relationship between temperature, growth rate, and duration of the planktonic life for larvae of the gastropod Crepidula fornicata (L). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 74: 241257.
  • Pechenik, J.A. 1999. On the advantages and disadvantages of larval stages in benthic marine invertebrate life cycles. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Series 177: 269297.
  • Pechenik, J.A., Estrella, M.S. & Hammer, K. 1996a. Food limitation stimulates metamorphosis of competent larvae and alters postmetamorphic growth rate in the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata. Mar. Biol. 127: 267275.
  • Pechenik, J.A., Hammer, K. & Weise, C. 1996b. The effect of starvation on acquisition of competence and post-metamorphic performance in the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata (L.). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 199: 137152.
  • Pfennig, D.W., Mabry, A. & Orange, D. 1991. Environmental causes of correlations between age and size at metamorphosis in Scaphiopus multiplicatus. Ecology 72: 22402248.
  • Quayle, D.B. 1988. Pacific oyster culture in British Columbia. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 218: 1241.
  • Ramirez, M.E.V., Le, Pennec, M., Dorange, G., Devauchelle, N. & Nonnotte, G. 1999. Assessment of female gamete quality in the Pacific oyster. Invertebrate Reprod. Dev. 36: 7378.
  • Rawson, P.D. & Hilbish, T.J. 1991. Genotype–environment interaction for juvenile growth in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria (L). Evolution 45: 19241935.
  • Robert, R. & Gérard, A. 1999. Bivalve hatchery technology: the current situation for the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the scallop Pecten maximus in France. Aquat. Living Resour. 12: 121130.
  • Robertson, F.W. 1960. The ecological genetics of growth in Drosophila. 1. Body size and developmental time on different diets. Genet. Res. 1: 288304.
  • Robertson, F.W. 1963. The ecological genetics of growth in Drosophila. 6. The genetic correlation between the duration of the larval period and body size in relation to larval diet. Genet. Res. 4: 74–92.
  • Rodrigez, J.L., Sedano, F.J., García-Martin, L.O., Pérez-Camacho, A. & Sánchez, J.L. 1990. Energy metabolism of newly settled Ostrea edulis spat during metamorphosis. Mar. Biol. 106: 109111.
  • Roegner, G.C. 1991. Temporal analysis of the relationship between settlers and early recruits of the oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 151: 5769.
  • Roff, D.A. 1992. The Evolution of Life Histories: Theory and Analysis. Chapman & Hall, New York.
  • Rose, M.R. 1982. Antagonistic pleiotropy, dominance, and genetic variation. Heredity 48: 6378.
  • Rowe, L. & Ludwig, D. 1991. Size and timing of metamorphosis in complex life cycles: time constraints and variation. Ecology 72: 22402248.
  • Semlistsch, R.D. 1993. Adaptive genetic variation in growth and development of tadpoles of the hybridogenetic Rana esculenta complex. Evolution 47: 18051818.
  • Smith-Gill, S.J. & Berven, K.A. 1979. Predicting amphibian metamorphosis. Am. Nat. 113: 563585.
  • Stearns, S.C. 1992. The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Stevens, D.J., Hansen, M.H., Freel, J.A. & Monaghan, P. 2000. Developmental trade-offs and life-histories: strategic allocation of resources in caddis flies. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267: 15111515.
  • Strathmann, R.R. 1993. Hypotheses on the origins of marine larvae. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 24: 89117.
  • Strömgren, T. & Nielsen, M.V. 1989. Heritability of growth in larvae and juveniles of Mytilus edulis. Aquaculture 80: 16.
  • Tamburri, M.N., Zimmer-Faust, R.K. & Tamplin, M.R. 1992. Natural sources and properties of chemical inducers mediating settlement of oyster larvae: a re-examination. Biol. Bull. 183: 327338.
  • Toro, J.E. & Parades, L.I. 1996. Heritability estimates of larval shell length in Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis under different food densities. Aquat. Living Resour. 9: 347350.
  • Travis, J., Emerson, S.B. & Blouin, M. 1987. A quantitative genetic analysis of larval life-history traits in Hyla crucifer. Evolution 41: 145156.
  • Tucic, N., Gliksman, I., Šešlija, D., Stojkovic, O. & Milanovic, D. 1998. Laboratory evolution of life-history traits in the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus): the effects of selection on developmental time in populations with different previous history. Evolution 52: 17131725.
  • Turner, E.J., Zimmer-Faust, R.K., Palmer, M.A., Luckenbach, M. & Pentcheff, N.D. 1994. Settlement of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) larvae: effects of water flow and a water-soluble chemical cue. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39: 15791593.
  • Via, S. 1984a. The quantitative genetics of polyphagy in an insect herbivore. I. Genotype–environment interaction in larval performance on different host plant species. Evolution 38: 881895.
  • Via, S. 1984b. The quantitative genetics of polyphagy in an insect herbivore. II. Genetic correlations in larval performance within and among host plants. Evolution 38: 896905.
  • Werner, E.E. 1986. Amphibian metamorphosis, growth rate, predation risk, and the optimal size at transformation. Am. Nat. 128: 319341.
  • Werner, E.E. & Gilliam, J.F. 1984. The onotgenic niche and species interactions in size-structured populations. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1984: 393425.
  • Wilbur, H.M. 1980. Complex life cycles. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 6793.
  • Wilbur, H.M. & Collins, J.P. 1973. Ecological aspects of amphibian metamorphosis. Science 182: 13051314.
  • Windig, J.J. 1994. Reaction norms and the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity in the wing pattern of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. J. Evol. Biol. 7: 665695.
  • Wray, G.A. & Raff, R.A. 1991. The evolution of developmental strategy in marine invertebrates. Trends Evol. Ecol. 6: 4550.
  • Zwaan, B.J., Bijlsma, R. & Hoekstra, R.F. 1995. Artificial selection for developmental time in Drosophila melanogaster in relation to aging: direct and correlated responses. Evolution 49: 635648.