SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Agrawal, A.F. 2001. Sexual selection and the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Nature 411: 692695.
  • Barton, N.H. & Charlesworth, B. 1998. Why sex and recombination? Science 281: 19861990.
  • Basler, C.F., Garcia-Sastre, A. & Palese, P. 1999. Mutation of neuraminidase cysteine residues yields temperature-sensitive influenza viruses. J. Virol. 73: 80958103.
  • Blaney, J.E. Jr, Johnson, D.H., Firestone, C.Y., Hanson, C.T., Murphy, B.R. & Whitehead, S.S. 2001. Chemical mutagenesis of dengue virus type 4 yields mutant viruses which are temperature sensitive in vero cells or human liver cells and attenuated in mice. J. Virol. 75: 97319740.
  • Boot, H.J., Ter Huurne, A.A., Vastenhouw, S.A., Kant, A., Peeters, B.P. & Gielkens, A.L. 2001. Rescue of infectious bursal disease virus from mosaic full-length clones composed of serotype I and II cDNA. Arch. Virol. 146: 19912007.
  • Brown, H.E., Chen, H. & Engelman, A. 1999. Structure-based mutagenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA attachment site: effects on integration and cDNA synthesis. J. Virol. 73: 90119020.
  • Butrapet, S., Huang, C.Y., Pierro, D.J., Bhamarapravati, N., Gubler, D.J. & Kinney, R.M. 2000. Attenuation markers of a candidate dengue type 2 vaccine virus, strain 16681 (PDK-53), are defined by mutations in the 5 noncoding region and nonstructural proteins 1 and 3. J. Virol. 74: 30113019.
  • CDC 2000. Outbreak of poliomyelitis – Dominican Republic and Haiti, 2000. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49: 10941103.
  • Charlesworth, B. 1990. Mutation-selection balance and the evolutionary advantage of sex and recombination. Genet. Res. 55: 199221.
  • Cheng, X., Zhou, H., Tang, R.S., Munoz, M.G. & Jin, H. 2001. Chimeric subgroup A respiratory syncytial virus with the glycoproteins substituted by those of subgroup B and RSV without the M2–2 gene are attenuated in African green monkeys. Virology 283: 5968.
  • Crotty, S., Cameron, C.E. & Andino, R. 2001. RNA virus error catastrophe: direct molecular test by using ribavirin. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98: 68956900.
  • de Visser, J.A.G.M., Hoekstra, R.F. & van den Ende, H. 1997. Test of interaction between genetic markers that affect fitness in Aspergillus niger. Evolution 51: 14991505.
  • Ebihara, H., Yoshimatsu, K., Ogino, M., Araki, K., Ami, Y., Kariwa, H., Takashima, I., Li, D. & Arikawa, J. 2000. Pathogenicity of Hantaan virus in newborn mice: genetic reassortant study demonstrating that a single amino acid change in glycoprotein G1 is related to virulence. J. Virol. 74: 92459255.
  • Elena, S.F. 1999. Little evidence for synergism among deleterious mutations in a nonsegmented RNA virus. J. Mol. Evol. 49: 703707.
  • Elena, S.F. & Lenski, R.E. 1997. Test of synergistic interactions among deleterious mutations in bacteria. Nature 390: 395398.
  • Fenster, C.B., Galloway, L.F. & Chao, L. 1997. Epistasis and its consquences for the evolution of natural populations. Trends Ecol. Evol. 12: 282287.
  • Fodor, E., Palese, P., Brownlee, G.G. & Garcia-Sastre, A. 1998. Attenuation of influenza A virus mRNA levels by promoter mutations. J. Virol. 72: 62836290.
  • Gritsun, T.S., Desai, A. & Gould, E.A. 2001. The degree of attenuation of tick-borne encephalitis virus depends on the cumulative effects of point mutations. J. Gen. Virol. 82: 16671675.
  • Hanley, K.A., Lee, J.J., Blaney, J.E.J., Murphy, B.R. & Whitehead, S.S. 2002. Paired charge-to-alanine mutagenesis of dengue virus type 4 NS5 generates mutants with temperature-sensitive, host-range and mouse-attenuation phenotypes. J. Virol. 76: 525531.
  • Hazelton, P.R. & Coombs, K.M. 1995. The reovirus mutant tsA279 has temperature-sensitive lesions in the M2 and L2 genes: the M2 gene is associated with decreased viral protein production and blockade in transmembrane transport. Virology 207: 4658.
  • Kanno, T., Mackay, D., Wilsden, G. & Kitching, P. 2001. Virulence of swine vesicular disease virus is determined at two amino acids in capsid protein VP1 and 2A protease Virus Res. 80: 101107.
  • Keightley, P.D. 1996. Nature of deleterious mutation load in Drosophila. Genetics 144: 19931999.
  • Kinney, R.M., Chang, G.-J., Tsuchiya, K.R., Sneider, J.M., Roehrig, J.T., Woodward, T.M. & Trent, D.W. 1993. Attenuation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus strain TC-83 is encoded by the 5-noncoding region and the E2 envelope glycoprotein. J. Virol. 67: 12691277.
  • Kondrashov, A.S. 1988. Deleterious mutations and the evolution of sexual reproduction. Nature 336: 435440.
  • Kondrashov, A.S. 1993. Classification of hypotheses on the advantage of amphimixis. J. Hered. 84: 372387.
  • Kondrashov, A.S. 1994. Muller's ratchet under epistatic selection. Genetics 136: 14691473.
  • Kondrashov, A.S. & Crow, J.F. 1991. Haploidy or diploidy: which is better? Nature 351: 314315.
  • Kondrashov, F.A. & Kondrashov, A.S. 2001. Multidimensional epistasis and the disadvantage of sex. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98: 1208912092.
  • Latorre, P., Cadd, T., Itoh, M., Curran, J. & Kolakofsky, D. 1998. The various sendai virus C proteins are not functionally equivalent and exert both positive and negative effects on viral RNA accumulation during the course of infection. J. Virol. 72: 59845993.
  • Lynch, M. & Gabriel, W. 1990. Mutation load and the survival of small populations. Evolution 44: 17251737.
  • Mandl, C.M., Allison, S.L., Holzmann, H., Meixner, T. & Heinz, F.X. 2000. Attenuation of tick-borne encephalitis virus by structure-based site-specific mutagenesis of a putative flavivirus receptor site. J. Virol. 74: 96019609.
  • Maynard Smith, J. 1978. The Evolution of Sex. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • McGoldrick, A., Macadam, A.J., Dunn, G., Rowe, A., Burlison, J., Minor, P.D., Meredith, J., Evans, D.J. & Almond, J.W. 1995. Role of mutations G-480 and C-6203 in the attenuation phenotype of Sabin type 1 poliovirus. J. Virol. 69: 76017605.
  • Men, R., Bray, M., Clark, D., Chanock, R.M. & Lai, C.-J. 1996. Dengue type 4 virus mutants containing deletions in the 3 noncoding region of the RNA genome: analysis of growth restriction in cell culture and altered viremia pattern and immunogenicity in rhesus monkeys. J. Virol. 70: 39303937.
  • Moore, F.B., Rozen, D.E. & Lenski, R.E. 2000. Pervasive compensatory adaptation in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 267: 515522.
  • Morse, S.S., ed. 1994. The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses. Raven Press Ltd, New York, NY.
  • Mukai, T. 1969. The genetic structure of natural populations of D. melanogaster. VIII. Synergistic interactions of spontaneous mutant polygenes controlling viability. Genetics 61: 749761.
  • Murphy, B.R. & Chanock, R.M. (2001). Immunization against viral diseases. In: Fields Virology (P. M.Howley, ed.), pp. 435467. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Nuzhdin, S.V., Pasyukova, E.G. & Mackay, T.F. 1996. Positive association between copia transposition rate and copy number in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 263: 823831.
  • Omata, T., Kohara, M., Kuge, S., Komatsu, T., Abe, S., Semler, B., Kameda, A., Itoh, H., Arita, M., Wimmer, E. & Nomoto, A. 1986. Genetic analysis of the attenuation of phenotype of poliovirus type 1 J. Virol. 58: 348358.
  • Otto, S.P. 1997. Unravelling gene interactions. Nature 390: 343.
  • Parkin, N.T., Chiu, P. & Coelingh, K. 1997. Genetically engineered live attenuated influenza A virus vaccine candidates. J. Virol. 71: 27722778.
  • Partridge, L. & Barton, N.H. 1993. Optimality, mutation and the evolution of ageing. Nature 362: 305311.
  • Peck, J.R., Barreau, G. & Heath, S.C. 1997. Imperfect genes, Fisherian mutation and the evolution of sex. Genetics 145: 11711199.
  • Peck, J.R. & Waxman, D. 2000. Mutation and sex in a competitive world. Nature 406: 399404.
  • Peters, A.D. & Keightley, P.D. 2000. A test for epistasis among induced mutations in Caenorhabdities elegans. Genetics 156: 16351647.
  • Roner, M.R., Neplouev, I., Sherry, B. & Joklik, W.K. 1997. Construction and characterization of a reovirus double temperature-sensitive mutant. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 94: 68266830.
  • Schmidt, A.C., Wenzke, D.R., McAuliffe, J.M., St Claire, M., Elkins, W.R., Murphy, B.R. & Collins, P.L. 2002. Mucosal immunization of rhesus monkeys against respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B and human parainfluenza virus type 3 by using a live cDNA-derived vaccine based on a host range-attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 vector backbone. J. Virol. 76: 10891099.
  • Schultz, S.T. & Lynch, M. 1997. Mutation and extinction: the role of variable mutational effects, synergistic epistasis, beneficial mutations, and degree of outcrossing. Evolution 51: 13631371.
  • Siller, S. 2001. Sexual selection and the maintenance of sex. Nature 411: 689692.
  • Skiadopoulos, M.H., Durbin, A.P., Tatem, J.M., Wu, S.-L., Paschalis, M., Tao, T., Collins, P.R. & Murphy, B.R. 1998. Three amino acid substitutions in the L protein of the human parainfluenza virus type 3 cp45 live attenuated vaccine candidate contribute to its temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes. J. Virol. 72: 17621768.
  • Skiadopoulos, M.H., Surman, S., Tatem, J.M., Paschalis, M., Wu, S.-L., Udem, S.A., Durbin, A.P., Collins, P.L. & Murphy, B.R. 1999. Identification of mutations contributing to the temperature-sensitive, cold-adapted, and attenuation phenotypes of the live-attenuated, cold-passage 45 (cp 45) human parainfluenza virus 3 candidate vaccine. J. Virol. 73: 13741381.
  • Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J. 1995. Biometry. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, NY.
  • Subbarao, E.K., Park, E.J., Lawson, C.M., Chen, A.Y. & Murphy, B.R. 1995. Sequential addition of temperature-sensitive missense mutations into the PB2 gene of influenza A transfectant viruses can effect an increase in temperature sensitivity and attenuation and permits the rational design of a genetically engineered live influenza A virus vaccine. J. Virol. 69: 59695977.
  • Szathmary, E. 1993. Do deleterious mutations act synergistically? Metabolic control theory provides a partial answer. Genetics 133: 127132.
  • Tang, R.S., Nguyen, N., Zhou, H. & Jin, H. 2002. Clustered charge-to-alanine mutagenesis of human respiratory syncytial virus L polymerase generates temperature-sensitive viruses. Virology 302: 207216.
  • Tao, T., Skiadopoulos, M.H., Davoodi, F., Riggs, J.M., Collins, P.L. & Murphy, B.R. 2000. Replacement of the ectodomains of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion glycoproteins of recombinant parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) with their counterparts from PIV2 yields attenuated PIV2 vaccine candidates. J. Virol. 74: 64486458.
  • Turner, P.E. 2003. Searching for the advantages of virus sex. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph 33: 95108.
  • Wade, M.J., Winther, R.G., Agrawal, A.F. & Goodnight, C.J. 2001. Alternative definitions of epistasis: dependence and interaction. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16: 498504.
  • Waxman, D. & Peck, J.R. 1999. Sex and adaptation in a changing environment. Genetics 153: 10411053.
  • West, S.A., Lively, C.M. & Read, A.F. 1999. A pluralistic approach to sex and recombination. J. Evol. Biol. 12: 10031012.
  • Whitehead, S.S., Firestone, C.-Y., Collins, P.L. & Murphy, B.R. 1998. A single nucleotide substitution in the transcription start signal of the M2 gene of respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate cpts 248/404 is the major determinant of the temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes. Virology 247: 232239.
  • Whitehead, S.S., Firestone, C.-Y., Karron, R.A., Crowe, J.E., Elkins, W.R., Collins, P.L. & Murphy, B.R. 1999. Addition of a missense mutation present in the L gene of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cpts 530/1030 to RSV vaccine candidate cpts 248/404 increases its attenuation and temperature sensitivity. J. Virol. 73: 871877.
  • Whitlock, M.C. & Bourguet, D. 2000. Factors affecting the genetic load in Drosophila: synergistic epistasis and correlations among fitness components. Evolution 54: 16541660.
  • Wolf, J.D., Brodie, E.D. & Wade, M.J., eds. 2000. Epistasis and the Evolutionary Process. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Zhang, L., Marriott, K.A., Harnish, D.G. & Aronson, J.F. 2001. Reassortant analysis of guinea-pig virulence of Pichinde virus variants. Virology 290: 3038.