• 1
    Fassio, A. & Sitia, R. (2002) Formation, isomerisation and reduction of disulphide bonds during protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. Histochem. Cell Biol. 117, 151157.
  • 2
    Freedman, R.B., Dunn, A.D. & Ruddock, L.W. (1998) Protein folding: a missing redox link in the endoplasmic reticulum. Curr. Biol. 18, R468R470.
  • 3
    Frand, A.R. & Kaiser, C.A. (1998) The ERO1 gene of yeast is required for oxidation of protein dithiols in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol. Cell 1, 161170.
  • 4
    Pollard, M.G., Travers, K.J. & Weissman, J.S. (1998) ERO1p: a novel and ubiquitous protein with an essential role in oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol. Cell 1, 171182.
  • 5
    Frand, A.R. & Kaiser, C.A. (1999) ERO1p oxidizes protein disulfide isomerase in a pathway for disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol. Cell 4, 469477.
  • 6
    Cabibbo, A., Pagani, M., Fabbri, M., Rocchi, M., Farmery, M.R., Bulleid, N.J. & Sitia, R. (2000) ERO1-L, a human protein that favors disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 48274833.
  • 7
    Pagani, M., Fabbri, M., Benedetti, C., Fassio, A., Pilati, S., Bulleid, N.J., Cabbibo, A. & Sitia, R. (2000) Endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1-l beta (ERO1-L beta), a human gene induced in the course of the unfolded protein response. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 2368523692.
  • 8
    Tu, B.P., Ho-Schleyer, S.C., Travers, K.J. & Weissman, J.S. (2000) Biochemical basis of oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Science 24, 15711574.
  • 9
    Benham, A.M., Cabibbo, A., Fassio, A., Bulleid, N., Sitia, R. & Braakman, I. (2000) The CXXCXXC motif determines the folding, structure and stability of human ERO1-L alpha. EMBO J. 19, 44934502.
  • 10
    Ma, Y. & Hendershot, L.M. (2001) The unfolding tale of the unfolded protein response. Cell 107, 827830.
  • 11
    Cuthill, S. & Poellinger, L. (1988) DNA binding properties of dioxin receptors in wild-type and mutant mouse hepatoma cells. Biochemistry 27, 29782982.
  • 12
    Numayama-Tsuruta, K., Kobayashi, A., Sogawa, K. & Fujii-Kuriyama, Y. (1997) A point mutation responsible for defective function of the aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor nuclear translocator in mutant Hepa-1c1c7 cells. Eur. J. Biochem. 246, 486495.
  • 13
    Gassmann, M., Kvietikova, I., Rolfs, A. & Wenger, R.H. (1997) Oxygen- and dioxin-regulated gene expression in mouse hepatoma cells. Kidney Int. 51, 567574.
  • 14
    Sigmund, C.D., Okuyama, K., Ingelfinger, J., Jones, C.A., Mullins, J.J., Kane, C., Kim, U., Wu, C.Z., Kenny, L., Rustum, Y., Dzau, V.J. & Gross, K.W. (1990) Isolation and characterization of renin expressing cell lines from transgenic mice containing a renin-promoter viral oncogene fusion construct. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1991619922.
  • 15
    Blum, H., Beier, H. & Gross, H.J. (1989) The expression of the TMV-specific 30-kDa protein in tobacco protoplasts is strongly and selectively enhanced by actinomycin. Virology 169, 5161.
  • 16
    Sickmann, A., Marcus, K., Schäfer, H., Butt-Dörje, E., Lehr, S., Herkner, A., Suer, S., Bahr, I. & Meyer, H.E. (2001) Identification of post-translationally modified proteins in proteome studies. Electrophoresis 22, 16691676.
  • 17
    Chomczynski, P. & Sacchi, N. (1987) Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal. Biochem. 162, 156115.
  • 18
    Hofbauer, K.H., Jensen, B.L., Kurtz, A. & Sandner, P. (2000) Tissue hypoxygenation activates the adrenomedullin system in vivo. Am. J.Physiol. 278, R513R519.
  • 19
    Cormier-Regard, S., Nguyen, S.V. & Claycomb, W.C. (1998) Adrenomedullin gene expression is developmentally regulated and induced by hypoxia in rat ventricular cardiac myocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 1778717792.
  • 20
    Lee, A.S. (2001) The glucose-regulated proteins: stress induction and clinical applications. Trends Biochem. Sci. 26, 504510.
  • 21
    Heacock, C.S. & Sutherland, R.M. (1990) Enhanced synthesis of stress proteins caused by hypoxia and relation to altered cell growth and metabolism. Br. J.Cancer 62, 217225.
  • 22
    Koumenis, C., Naczki, C., Koritzinsky, M., Rastani, S., Diehl, A., Sonenberg, N., Koromilas, A. & Wouters, B.G. (2002) Regulation of protein synthesis by hypoxia via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum kinase PERK and phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIFalpha. Mol. Cell Biol. 22, 74057416.
  • 23
    Wang, G.L. & Semenza, G.L. (1995) Purification and characterization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 12301237.
  • 24
    Jaakkola, P., Mole, D.R., Tian, Y.M., Wilson, M.I., Gielbert, J., Gaskell, S.J., Kriegsheim, A.V., Hebestreit, H.F., Mukherji, M., Schofield, C.J., Maxwell, P.H., Pugh, C.W. & Ratcliffe, P.J. (2001) Targeting of HIF-alpha to the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex by O2-regulated prolyl hydroxylation. Science 292, 468472.
  • 25
    Bruick, R.K. & McKnight, S.L. (2001) A conserved family of prolyl-4-hydroxylases that modify HIF. Science 294, 13371340.
  • 26
    Epstein, A.C., Gleadle, J.M., MsNeill, L.A., Hewitson, K.S., O'Rourke, J., Mole, D.R., Mukherji, M., Metzen, F., Wilson, M.I., Dhanda, A., Tian, Y.M., Masson, N., Mailton, D.L., Jaakola, P., Barstead, R., Hodgkin, J., Maxwell, P.H., Pugh, C.W., Schofield, C.J. & Ratcliffe, P.J.C. (2001) elegans EGL-9 and mammalian homologs define a family of dioxygenases that regulate HIF by prolyl hydroxylation. Cell 107, 4354.
  • 27
    Wang, G.L., Jiang, B.H. & Semenza, G.L. (1995) Effect of protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitors on expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 216, 669675.
  • 28
    Jiang, B.H., Zheng, J.Z., Leung, S.W., Roe, R. & Semenza, G.L. (1997) Transactivation and inhibitory domains of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha. Modulation of transcriptional activity by oxygen tension. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 1925319260.
  • 29
    Semenza, G.L. (1999) Regulation of mammalian O2 homeostasis by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15, 551578.
  • 30
    Shimizu, T., Miyake, T., Pilch, A.M., Mantel, C. & Rhy, M.J. Jr (1986) Biochemical properties of human urinary megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin: the role of sulfhydryl Groups and disulfide bonds. Exp. Cell Res. 54, 281286.
  • 31
    Potgens, A.J., Lubsen, N.H., van Altena, M.C., Vermeulen, R., Bakker, A., Schoenmakers, J.G., Ruiter, D.J. & de Waal, R.M. (1994) Covalent dimerization of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor is essential for its biological activity. Evidence from Cys to Ser mutations. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 3287932885.
  • 32
    Kitamura, K., Matsui, E., Kato, J., Katoh, F., Kita Tsuji, T., Kangawa, K. & Eto, T. (2001) Adrenomedullin (11–26): a novel endogenous hypertensive peptide isolated from bovine adrenal medulla. Peptides 22, 17131718.
  • 33
    Tanaka, S., Uehara, T. & Nomura, Y. (2000) Up-regulation of protein-disulfide isomerase in response to hypoxia/brain ischemia and its protective effect against apoptotic cell death. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 1038810388.
  • 34
    Veijola, J., Koivunen, P., Annunen, P., Pihlajaneiemi, T. & Kivirkku, K.I. (1994) Cloning, baculovirus expression, and characterization of the alpha subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This alpha subunit forms an active alpha beta dimer with the human protein disulfide isomerase/beta subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 2674626753.
  • 35
    Takahashi, Y., Takahashi, S., Shiga, Y., Yoshimi, T. & Miura, T. (2000) Hypoxic induction of prolyl 4-hydroxylase alpha (I) in cultured cells. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 1413914146.