Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic immunosuppressive cytokine that has a wide range of effects in controlling inflammatory responses. Viral IL-10 (vIL-10) is a homologue of human IL-10 (hIL-10) produced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Both hIL-10 and vIL-10 bind to the soluble extracellular fragment of the cytokine receptor IL-10R1 (shIL-10R1). The stoichiometry of the vIL-10 : shIL-10R1 complex has been found to be the same as hIL-10 : shIL-10R1, with two vIL-10 dimers binding to four shIL-10R1 monomers. Complexes of both hIL-10 and vIL-10 with glycosylated shIL-10R1 could not be crystallized. Controlled deglycosylation using peptide : N-glycosidase F and endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase F3 resulted in the formation of crystals of both hIL-10 : shIL-10R1 and vIL-10 : shIL-10R1 complexes, indicating that the difficulty in the crystal formation was largely due to the presence of complex carbohydrate side chains. The availability of the structure of the ligand-receptor complexes should facilitate our understanding of the basis of the interaction between IL-10 and the IL-10 receptor.