DnaJ proteins are located in various compartments of the eukaryotic cell. As previously shown, peroxisomes and glyoxysomes possess a membrane-anchored form of DnaJ protein located on the cytosolic face. Hints as to how the membrane-bound co-chaperone interacts with cytosolic soluble chaperones were obtained by examining the affinity between the DnaJ protein and various potential partners of the Hsp70 family. Two genes encoding cytosolic Hsp70 isoforms were isolated and characterized from cucumber cotyledons. In addition, cDNAs encoding Hsp70 forms attributed to the cytosol, plastids and the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum were prepared. His-tagged DnaJ proteins and glutathione S-transferase–Hsp70 fusion proteins were constructed. Using these tools, it was demonstrated that the soluble His-tagged form of DnaJ protein exclusively binds the cytosolic isoform 1 of Hsp70. This interaction was further analyzed by characterizing the interaction between the glyoxysome-bound form of the DnaJ protein and various isoforms of Hsp70. Specific binding to the glyoxysomal surface was only observed in the case of cytosolic isoform 1 of Hsp70. This interaction was strictly dependent on the presence of ADP. Glyoxysomes did not bind other cytosolic or plastidic isoforms or the BiP-related form of Hsp70. Analyzing the enzymatic properties of cytosolic Hsp70s, we showed that the ATPase-modulating activity of DnaJ was highest when isoform 1 was assayed. Collectively, the data indicate that the partner of the DnaJ protein anchored at the glyoxysomal membrane is the cytosolic isoform 1 of Hsp70. In addition to the chaperones located at the surface of glyoxysomes, two isoforms of Hsp70 and one soluble form of DnaJ protein were detected in the glyoxysomal matrix.