SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Pitcher, J.A., Freedman, N.J., Lefkowitz, R.J. (1998) G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 653 692.
  • 2
    Krupnick, J.G. & Benovic, J.L. (1998) The role of receptor kinases and arrestins in G protein-coupled receptor regulation. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 38, 289 319.
  • 3
    Aragay, A.M., Ruiz-Gómez, A., Penela, P., Sarnago, S., Elorza, A., Jiménez-Sainz, M.C., Mayor, F. Jr (1998b) G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2): mechanisms of regulation and physiological functions. FEBS Lett. 430, 37 40.DOI: 10.1016/s0014-5793(98)00495-5
  • 4
    Arriza, J.L., Dawson, T.M., Simerly, R.B., Matin, L.J., Caron, M.G., Snyder, S.H., Lefkowitz, R.J. (1992) The G protein-coupled receptor kinases βARK1 and βARK2 are widely distributed at synapses in rat brain. J. Neurosci. 12, 4045 4055.
  • 5
    Attramadal, H., Arriza, J.L., Aoki, C., Dawson, T.M., Codina, J., Kwatra, M.M., Snyder, S., Caron, M.G., Lefkowitz, R.J. (1992) β-arrestin2, a novel member of the arrestin/β-arrestin gene family. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 17882 17890.
  • 6
    Murga, C., Penela, P., Zafra, F., Mayor, F. Jr (1998) The subcellular and cellular distribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in rat brain. Neuroscience 87, 631 637.DOI: 10.1016/s0306-4522(98)00145-6
  • 7
    Chuang, T.T., Iacovelly, L., Sallese, M., De Blasi, A. (1996) G protein-coupled receptors: heterologous regulation of homologous desensitization and its implications. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 17, 416 121.DOI: 10.1016/s0165-6147(96)10048-1
  • 8
    Dussault, J.H. & Ruel, J. (1987) Thyroid hormones and brain development. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 49, 321 334.
  • 9
    Poterfield, S.P. & Hendrich, C.E. (1993) The role of thyroid hormones in prenatal and neonatal neurological development. Current perspectives. Endocr. Rev. 14, 94 106.
  • 10
    Mellström, B., Pipaón, C., Naranjo, J.R., Pérez-Castillo, A., Santos, A. (1994) Differential effect of thyroid hormone on NGFI-A gene expression in developing rat brain. Endocrinology 135, 583 588.
  • 11
    García-Fernández, L.F., Rausell, E., Urade, Y., Hayaishi, O., Bernal, J., Muñoz, A. (1997) Hypothyroidism alters the expression of prostaglandin D2 synthase/b-trace in specific areas of the developing rat brain. Eur. J. Neurosci. 9, 1566 1573.
  • 12
    Iglesias, T., Caubín, J., Stunnenberg, H.G., Zaballos, A., Bernal, J., Muñoz, A. (1996) Thyroid hormone-dependent transcriptional repression of neural cell adhesion molecule during brain maturation. EMBO J. 15, 4307 4316.
  • 13
    Smith, R.M., Patel, A.J., Kingsbury, A.E., Hunt, A., Balázs, R. (1980) Effects of thyroid state on brain development: β-adrenergic receptors and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Brain Res. 198, 375 387.
  • 14
    Das, S. & Paul, S. (1994) Decrease in β-adrenergic receptors on cerebral astrocytes in hypothyroid rat brain. Life Sci. 54, 621 629.
  • 15
    Vaccari, A., Rosstti, Z.L., de Montis, G., Stefanini, E., Martino, E., Gessa, G.L. (1990a) Neonatal hypothyroidism induces striatal dopaminergic dysfunction. Neuroscience 35, 699 706.
  • 16
    Wagner, J.P., Seidler, F.J., Lappi, S.E., McCook, E.C., Slotkin, T.A. (1994) Role of thyroid status in the ontogeny of adrenergic cell signaling in rat brain: beta receptors, adenylate cyclase, ornithine decarboxylase and c-fos protooncogene expression. J. Pharm. Exper. Therap. 291, 472 483.
  • 17
    García-Fernández, L.F., Iñiguez, M.A., Rodriguez-Peña, A., Muñoz, A., Bernal, J. (1993) Brain-specific prostaglandin D2 synthetase mRNA is dependent on thyroid hormone during rat brain development. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 196, 396 401.
  • 18
    Alvarez-Dolado, M., Iglesias, T., Rodríguez-Peña, A., Bernal, J., Muñoz, A. (1994) Expression of neurotrophins and the trk family of neurotrophin receptors in normal and hypothyroid rat brain. Mol. Brain Res. 27, 249 257.
  • 19
    Chomczynski, P. & Sacchi, N. (1987) Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-choloroform extraction. Anal. Biochem. 162, 156 159.
  • 20
    Murga, C., Ruiz-Gómez, A., García-Higuera, I., Kim, C.M., Benovic, J.L., Mayor, F. Jr (1996) High affinity binding of β-adrenergic receptor kinase to microsomal membranes. Modulation of the activity of bound kinase by heterotrimeric G protein activation. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 985 994.
  • 21
    Diviani, D., Lattion, A.L., Larbi, N., Kunapuli, P., Pronin, A., Benovic, J.L., Cotecchia, S. (1996) Effect of different G protein-coupled receptor kinases on phosphorylation and desensitization of the alpha1B-adrenergic receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 5049 5058.
  • 22
    Ozaita, A., Escribá, P.V., Ventayol, P., Murga, C., Mayor, F. Jr, García-Sevilla, J.A. (1998) Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in brains of opiate-treated rats and human opiate addicts. J. Neurochem. 70, 1249 1257.
  • 23
    Broaddus, W.C. & Bennett, J.P. Jr (1990) Postnatal development of striatal dopamine function. I. An examination of D1 and D2 receptors, adenylate cyclase regulation and presynaptic dopamine markers. Dev. Brain Res. 52, 265 271.
  • 24
    Duval, J.L., Werck, M.C., Nehlig, A., Pereira de Vasconcelos, A. (1991) Quantitative autoradiographic study of the postnatal development of adenosine A1 receptors and their coupling to G proteins in the rat brain. Neuroscience 40, 841 851.
  • 25
    Erdtsieck-Ernste, B.H.W., Feenstra, M.G.P., Boer, G.J. (1991) Pre- and postnatal developmental changes of adrenoceptor subtypes in rat brain. J. Neurochem. 57, 897 904.
  • 26
    Mayor, F., Jr, Penela, P., Ruiz-Gómez, A. (1998) Role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and arrestins in β-adrenergic receptor internalization. Trends Cardiov. Med. 8, 234 240.
  • 27
    Ménard, L., Ferguson, S.S.G., Zhang, J., Lin, F.T., Lefkowitz, R.J., Caron, M.G., Barak, L.S. (1997) Synergistic regulation of β2-adrenergic receptor sequestration: intracellular complement of β2-adrenergic receptor kinase and β-arrestin determine kinetics of internalization. Mol. Pharmacol. 51, 800 808.
  • 28
    Patel, A.J., Smith, R.M., Kingsbuy, A.E., Hunt, A., Balckzs, R. (1980) Effects of thyroid state on brain development: muscarinic acetylcholine and GABA receptors. Brain Res. 198, 139 402.
  • 29
    Atterwill, C.K., Bunn, S.J., Atkinson, D.J., Smith, S.L., Heal, D.J. (1984) Effects of thyroid status on presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor function and beta-adrenoceptor binding in the rat brain. J. Neural. Transm. 59, 43 55.
  • 30
    Swann, A.C. (1988) Thyroid hormone and norepinephrine: effects on alpha-2, beta, and reuptake sites in cerebral cortex and heart. J. Neural Transm. 71, 195 205.
  • 31
    Hanft, G. & Gross, G. (1990) The effect of reserpine, desipramine and thyroid hormone on alpha 1a- and alpha 1b-adrenoceptor binding sites: evidence for a subtype-specific regulation. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 30, 125S 127S.
  • 32
    Penn, R.B. & Benovic, J.L. (1994) Structure of the human gene encoding the β-adrenergic receptor kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 14924 14930.
  • 33
    Penela, P., Ruiz-Gómez, A., Castaño, J.G., Mayor, F. Jr (1998) Degradation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 by the proteasome pathway. J. Biol. Chem 273, 35238 35144.
  • 34
    Mitch, W.E. & Goldberg, A.L. (1996) Mechanisms of muscle wasting. N. Engl. J. Med. 335, 1897 1905.
  • 35
    Gros, R., Benovic, J.L., Tan, C.M., Feldman, R.D. (1997) G-protein-coupled receptor kinase activity is increased in hypertension. J. Clin. Invest. 99, 2089 2093.
  • 36
    Wong, C.C., Warsh, J.J., Sibony, D., Li, P.P. (1994) Differential ontogenetic appearance and regulation of stimulatory G protein isoforms in rat cerebral cortex by thyroid hormone deficiency. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 79, 136 139.
  • 37
    Gross, G., Brodde, O.E., Schumann, H.J. (1980) Decreased number of beta-adrenoceptors in cerebral cortex of hypothyroid rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 61, 191 194.