• 1
    Haavik, H.I. & Froyshov, O. (1975) Function of peptide antibiotics in producer organisms. Nature 254, 7982.
  • 2
    Johnson, B.A., Anker, H., Meleney, F.L. (1945) Bacitracin: a new antibiotic produced by a member of the B. subtilis group. Science 102, 376377.
  • 3
    Azevedo, E.C., Rios, E.M., Fukushima, K., Campos-Takaki, G.M. (1993) Bacitracin production by a new strain of Bacillus subtilis. Extraction, purification and characterization. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 42, 17.
  • 4
    Ishihara, H., Endo, Y., Abe, S., Shimura, K. (1975) The presence of 4′-phosphopantetheine in the bacitracin synthetase. FEBS Lett. 50, 4346.
  • 5
    Froyshov, O. (1975) Enzyme-bound intermediates in the biosynthesis of bacitracin. Eur J. Biochem. 59, 201206.
  • 6
    Rieder, H., Heinrich, G., Breuker, E., Simlot, M.M., Pfaender, P. (1975) Bacitracin synthetase. Methods Enzymol. 43, 548559.
  • 7
    Konz, D., Klens, A., Schörgendorfer, K., Marahiel, M.A. (1997) The bacitracin biosynthesis operon of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 10716: molecular characterization of three multi-modular peptide synthetases. Chem Biol. 4, 927937.
  • 8
    Lipmann, F. (1980) Bacterial production of antibiotic polypeptides by thiol-linked synthesis on protein templates. Adv. Microb Physiol. 21, 227266.
  • 9
    Marahiel, M.A. (1997) Protein templates for the biosynthesis of peptide antibiotics. Chem Biol. 4, 561567.
  • 10
    Stachelhaus, T. & Marahiel, M.A. (1995) Modular structure of genes encoding multifunctional peptide synthetases required for non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 125, 314.DOI: 10.1016/0378-1097(94)00459-5
  • 11
    Kleinkauf, H. & von Döhren, H. (1996) A nonribosomal system of peptide biosynthesis. Eur J. Biochem. 236, 335351.
  • 12
    Marahiel, M.A., Stachelhaus, T., Mootz, H.D. (1997) Modular peptide synthetases involved in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. Chem Rev. 97, 26512673.DOI: 10.1021/cr960029e
  • 13
    Cosmina, P., Rodriguez, F., de Ferra, F., Grandi, G., Perego, M., Venema, G., van Sinderen, D. (1993) Sequence and analysis of the genetic locus responsible for surfactin synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Microbiol. 8, 821831.
  • 14
    Krause, M., Marahiel, M.A., von Dohren, H., Kleinkauf, H. (1985) Molecular cloning of an ornithine-activating fragment of the gramicidin S synthetase 2 gene from Bacillus brevis and its expression in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 162, 11201125.
  • 15
    Turgay, K., Krause, M., Marahiel, M.A. (1992) Four homologous domains in the primary structure of GrsB are related to domains in a superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes. Mol Microbiol. 6, 27432744.
  • 16
    Mootz, H.D. & Marahiel, M.A. (1997) The tyrocidine biosynthesis operon of Bacillus brevis: complete nucleotide sequence and biochemical characterization of functional internal adenylation domains,. J. Bacteriol. 179, 68436850.
  • 17
    Haese, A., Schubert, M., Herrmann, M., Zocher, R. (1993) Molecular characterization of the enniatin synthetase gene encoding a multifunctional enzyme catalysing N-methyldepsipeptide formation in Fusarium scirpi. Mol Microbiol. 7, 905914.
  • 18
    Weber, G., Schörgendorfer, K., Schneider-Scherzer, E., Leitner, E. (1994) The peptide synthetase catalyzing cyclosporine production in Tolypocladium niveum is encoded by a giant 45.8-kilobase open reading frame. Curr. Genet. 26, 120125.
  • 19
    Scott-Craig, J.S., Panaccione, D.G., Pocard, J.A., Walton, J.D. (1992) The cyclic peptide synthetase catalyzing HC-toxin production in the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus carbonum is encoded by a 15.7-kilobase open reading frame. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 2604426049.
  • 20
    Stone, K.J. & Strominger, J.L. (1971) Mechanism of action of bacitracin: complexation with metal ion and C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 68, 32233227.
  • 21
    Storm, D.R. & Strominger, J.L. (1973) Complex formation between bacitracin peptides and isoprenyl pyrophosphates. The specificity of lipid–peptide interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 248, 39403945.
  • 22
    Cain, B.D., Norton, P.J., Eubanks, W., Nick, H.S., Allen, C.M. (1993) Amplification of the bacA gene confers bacitracin resistance to Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 175, 37843789.
  • 23
    Chalker, A.F., Ingraham, K.A., Lunsford, R.D., Bryant, A.P., Bryant, J., Wallis, N.G., Broskey, J.P., Pearson, S.C., Holmes, D.J. (2000) The bacA gene, which determines bacitracin susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, is also required for virulence. Microbiology. 146, 15471553.
  • 24
    Pollock, T.J., Thorne, L., Yamazaki, M., Mikolajczak, M.J., Armentrout, R.W. (1994) Mechanism of bacitracin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria that synthesize exopolysaccharides. J. Bacteriol. 176, 62296237.
  • 25
    Podlesek, Z., Comino, A., Herzog-Velikonja, B., Zgur-Bertok, D., Komel, R., Grabnar, M. (1995) Bacillus licheniformis bacitracin-resistance ABC transporter: relationship to mammalian multidrug resistance. Mol. Microbiol. 16, 969976.
  • 26
    Podlesek, Z., Herzog, B., Comino, A. (1997) Amplification of bacitracin transporter genes in the bacitracin producing Bacillus licheniformis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 157, 201205.DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1097(97)00477-1
  • 27
    Podlesek, Z., Comino, A., Herzog-Velikonja, B., Grabnar, M. (2000) The role of the bacitracin ABC transporter in bacitracin resistance and collateral detergent sensitivity. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 188, 103106.DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1097(00)00218-4
  • 28
    Rodriguez, F. & Grandi, G. (1995) An operon encoding a novel ABC-type transport system in Bacillus subtilis. Microbiology 141, 17811784.
  • 29
    Konz, D., Doekel, S., Marahiel, M.A. (1999) Molecular and biochemical characterization of the protein template controlling biosynthesis of the lipopeptide lichenysin. J. Bacteriol. 181, 133140.
  • 30
    Turgay, K. & Marahiel, M.A. (1995) The gtcRS operon coding for two-component system regulatory proteins is located adjacent to the grs operon of Bacillus brevis. DNA Seq. 5, 283290.
  • 31
    Hoch, J.A. & Silhavy, T.J. (1995) Two-Component Signal Transduction. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • 32
    Parkinson, J.S. & Kofoid, E.C. (1992) Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu. Rev. Genet. 26, 71112.
  • 33
    Parkinson, J.S. (1993) Signal transduction schemes of bacteria. Cell 73, 857871.
  • 34
    Parkinson, J.S. (1995). Genetic approaches for signaling pathways and proteins In Two-Component Signal Transduction (Hoch, J.A. & Silhavy, T.J., eds), pp. 923. American Society of Microbiology, Washington DC.
  • 35
    Stock, J.B., Surette, M.G., Levit, M., Park, P. (1995) Two-component signal transduction systems: structure-function relationships and mechanisms of catalysis. In Two-Component Signal Transduction (Hoch, J.A. & Silhavy, T.J., eds), pp. 2551. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • 36
    Stock, J.B., Stock, A.M., Mottonen, J.M. (1990) Signal transduction in bacteria. Nature 344, 395400.
  • 37
    Bourret, R.B., Borkovich, K.A., Simon, M.I. (1991) Signal transduction pathways involving protein phosphorylation in prokaryotes. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 60, 401441.
  • 38
    Fabret, C., Feher, V.A., Hoch, J.A. (1999) Two-component signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis: how one organism sees its world. J. Bacteriol. 181, 19751983.
  • 39
    Msadek, T., Kunst, F., Rapoport, G. (1995). A signal transduction network in Bacillus subtilis includes the DegS/DegU and ComP/ComA two-component systems , In Two-Component Signal Transduction. (Hoch, J.A. & Silhavy, T.J., eds), pp. 447471. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • 40
    Klein, C., Kaletta, C., Entian, K.D. (1993) Biosynthesis of the lantibiotic subtilin is regulated by a histidine kinase/response regulator system. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 296303.
  • 41
    Adamidis, T., Riggle, P., Champness, W. (1990) Mutations in a new Streptomyces coelicolor locus which globally block antibiotic biosynthesis but not sporulation. J. Bacteriol. 172, 29622969.
  • 42
    Brian, P., Riggle, P.J., Santos, R.A., Champness, W.C. (1996) Global negative regulation of Streptomyces coelicolor antibiotic synthesis mediated by an absA-encoded putative signal transduction system. J. Bacteriol. 178, 32213231.
  • 43
    Aceti, D.J. & Champness, W.C. (1998) Transcriptional regulation of Streptomyces coelicolor pathway-specific antibiotic regulators by the absA and absB loci. J. Bacteriol. 180, 31003106.
  • 44
    Haavik, H.I. (1974) Studies on the formation of bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis: effect of glucose. J. Gen Microbiol. 81, 383390.
  • 45
    Guerout-Fleury, A.M., Shanzand, K., Frandsen, N., Stragier, P. (1995) Antibiotic-resistance cassettes for Bacillus subtilis. Gene 167, 335336.DOI: 10.1016/0378-1119(95)00652-4
  • 46
    Youngman, P., Poth, H., Green, B., York, K., Olmedo, G., Smith, K. (1989). Methods for genetic manipulations, cloning and functional analysis of sporulation genes in Bacillus subtilis . In Regulation of Prokaryotic Development. (Smith, I., Slepecky, R. & Setlow, P., eds), pp. 6587. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
  • 47
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
  • 48
    Cutting, S.M. & Vander Horn, P.B. (1990). Genetic analysis . In Molecular Biological Methods for Bacillus. (Cutting, S.M. & Harwood, C.R., eds), pp. 2774. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York.
  • 49
    Sanger, F., Nicklen, S., Coulson, A.R. (1977) DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 74, 54635467.
  • 50
    Stachelhaus, T. & Marahiel, M.A. (1995) Modular structure of peptide synthetases revealed by dissection of the multifunctional enzyme GrsA. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 61636169.
  • 51
    Bradford, M.M. (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 72, 248254.
  • 52
    Quax, W. (1990). Bacillus licheniformis protoplast transformation. In Molecular Biological Methods for Bacillus. (Cutting, S.M. & Harwood, C.R., eds), pp. 152. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York.
  • 53
    Gray, O. & Chang, S. (1981) Molecular cloning and expression of Bacillus licheniformis beta-lactamase gene in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 145, 422428.
  • 54
    Youngman, P. (1990). Use of transposons and integral vectors. In: Molecular Biological Methods for Bacillus. (Cutting, S.M. & Harwood, C.R., eds), pp. 221266. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York.
  • 55
    Laemmli, U.K. (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680685.
  • 56
    Stock, J.B., Ninfa, A.J., Stock, A.M. (1989) Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria. Microbiol. Rev. 53, 450490.
  • 57
    Evers, S. & Courvalin, P. (1996) Regulation of VanB-type vancomycin resistance gene expression by the VanS(B)-VanR(B) two-component regulatory system in Enterococcus faecalis V583. J. Bacteriol. 178, 13021309.
  • 58
    Forst, S., Comeau, D., Norioka, S., Inouye, M. (1987) Localization and membrane topology of EnvZ, a protein involved in osmoregulation of OmpF and OmpC in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 1643316438.
  • 59
    Cundliffe, E. (1989) How antibiotic-producing organisms avoid suicide. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 43, 207233.
  • 60
    Walsh, C.T., Fisher, S.L., Park, I.S., Prahalad, M., Wu, Z. (1996) Bacterial resistance to vancomycin: five genes and one missing hydrogen bond tell the story. Chem. Biol. 3, 2128.
  • 61
    Walsh, C. (2000) Molecular mechanisms that confer antibacterial drug resistance. Nature 406, 775781.DOI: 10.1038/35021219
  • 62
    Guilfoile, P.G. & C.R. (1991) A bacterial analog of the mdr gene of mammalian tumor cells is present in Streptomyces peucetius, the producer of daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 88, 85538557.
  • 63
    Lomovskaya, N., Hong, S.K., Kim, S.U., Fonstein, L., Furuya, K., Hutchinson, R.C. (1996) The Streptomyces peucetius drrC gene encodes a UvrA-like protein involved in daunorubicin resistance and production. J. Bacteriol. 178, 32383245.
  • 64
    Bullock, W.O., Fernandez, J.M., Short, J.M. (1987) XL1Blue: a high efficiency plasmid transforming recA E. coli strain with beta-galactosidase selection. Biotechniques 5, 376379.