Objective: Description of a case of acute gram-positive peritonitis following cystocentesis and leakage of contaminated urine into the peritoneal cavity.
Case summary: A 6-year-old male Standard Poodle was presented for stranguria and was identified to have a urethral obstruction. Attempts at retrograde urethral catheterization failed and a decompressive cystocentesis was performed. Within several hours, the dog became dull, tachycardic, tachypneic, pyrexic and profoundly hypovolemic. Septic peritonitis resulting from the introduction of a staphylococcal organism from a urinary tract infection into the peritoneal cavity was identified. The dog responded well to surgical therapy and medical management.
New or unique information provided: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first detailed report of gram-positive septic peritonitis resulting from a therapeutic cystocentesis. This is contrary to most other reports of septic peritonitis in dogs, where the causative agent is a gram-negative organism. The characteristics of sepsis caused by a gram-positive organism are different and in humans the relative importance of gram-positive sepsis is increasing.