Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are a relatively frequent cause of male infertility. Depending on their molecular consequences, CFTR mutations may either result in typical cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders, which is characterized by chronic lung disease, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, an increase in the concentration of sweat electrolytes and male infertility, due to obstructive azoospermia, or in atypical (often monosymptomatic) forms of CF such as congenital absence of the vas deferens (bi- or unilateral), bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction or bilateral obstructions within the epididymides. All males with idiopathic obstructive azoospermia bear an increased risk for CF offspring. Couples requesting microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration and in vitro fertilization, e.g. intracytoplasmic sperm injection, should be offered genetic counselling and molecular genetic analysis of the CFTR gene, if male infertility due to obstructive azoospermia is the underlying cause.