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Quantitative evaluation of health impairments in wild chimpanzees was explored using fractal long-range correlations of behavioural sequences. The health status of 13 chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania was evaluated non-invasively using standard behavioural observation and parasitological analysis of stool samples. Based on these data, individuals were classified as being either healthy or sick. Behavioural sequences were analysed and shown to exhibit long-range power law correlations. The behavioural sequences of individuals in healthy and sick states were quantitatively evaluated using detrended fluctuation analysis of social and non-social behaviours within behavioural sequences. These values were compared and significant differences in long-range correlations were found between health states. Sex differences were also noted, with female social behaviour displaying a larger fractal dimension than male social behaviour. The fractal dimension of females declined significantly in sick individuals. This analysis of behaviour provides a new and effective non-invasive method to record and evaluate the general state of health and related stress of animals in the wild. Possible applications of this method in captive situations include the monitoring and evaluating of stress levels over time.