This study examined the differential responses to alarm calls from juvenile and adult wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) in two parks in southern India. Field studies of several mammalian species have reported that the alarm vocalizations of immature individuals are often treated by perceivers as less provocative than those of adults. This study documents such differences in response using field-recorded playbacks of juvenile and adult alarm vocalizations. To validate the use of playback vocalizations as proxies of natural calls, we compared the responses of bonnet macaques to playbacks of alarm vocalizations with responses engendered by natural alarm vocalizations. We found that the frequency of flight, latency to flee, and the frequency of scanning to vocalization playbacks and natural vocalizations were comparable, thus supporting the use of playbacks to compare the effects of adult and juvenile calls. Our results showed that adult alarm calls were more provocative than juvenile alarm calls, inducing greater frequencies of flight with faster reaction times. Conversely, juvenile alarm calls were more likely to engender scanning by adults, a result interpreted as reflecting the lack of reliability of juvenile calls. Finally, we found age differences in flight behavior to juvenile alarm calls and to playbacks of motorcycle engine sounds, with juveniles and subadults more likely to flee than adults after hearing such sounds. These findings might reflect an increased vulnerability to predators or a lack of experience in young bonnet macaques.