We sought evidence for postnatal resource limitation among littermates of the domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, and asked whether deaths of indi~vidual pups benefit survivors by increasing their share of milk. Milk ingestion, growth and mortality of 10 chinchilla-breed captive litters were recorded between birth and age 21 d. That milk limits growth and survival was indicated by larger litters showing lower weight gain and higher mortality, and by a significant positive correlation between milk ingested by individual pups and weight increase. Within litters, pups with higher birth weights grew faster, and weight hierarchies became increasingly stable over the 3 weeks, suggesting that advantages accrued during gestation were progressively consolidated during lactation. After individual pups died, the total daily milk weight obtained by the litter was generally unaffected but per capita milk consumption and growth of surviving pups increased, and increases in per capita consumption were greater in smaller litters. The most successful competitors for milk apparently benefit from the deaths of their littermates by obtaining an increased share of an undiminished daily food supply. This relationship has not previously been demonstrated in any vertebrate.