Sexual Competition, Coercive Mating and Mate Assessment in the One-Sided Livebearer, Jenynsia multidentata: Are They Predictive of Sexual Dimorphism?


Corresponding author: A. Pilastro, Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Padova, via U. Bassi 38/B, I-35131 Padova, Italy. E-mail:


We investigated the mechanisms of sexual selection operating on body size in the one-sided livebearer (Jenynsia multidentata), a small fish characterized by male dwarfism. Mating in the one-sided livebearer is coercive: males approach females from behind and try to thrust their copulatory organ at the female genital pore. Females counter males' mating attempts by either swimming away or attacking them. We tested the hypothesis that the components of sexual selection favouring small size in males (sexual coercion) were more effective than those favouring a large size (male competition and mate choice). When alone, small males had a significantly higher success in their mating attempts than large males. The proportion of successful attempts was also positively correlated with female size. When two males competed for the same female, the large male had a significant mating advantage over the small one. With a 1 : 1 sex ratio, the large-male mating advantage vanished because each male tended to follow a different female. Large males, however, preferentially defended large females, thus compelling small males to engage with smaller, less fecund females. Males did not discriminate between gravid and non-gravid females, but preferred mating with larger females. This preference disappeared when males were much smaller than the female, probably in relation to the risk for the male of being eaten or injured by the female. In a choice chamber, male-deprived females that had their sperm storage depleted remained close to males and showed a preference for large individuals, a behaviour not observed in non-deprived females. Nonetheless, when placed with males in the same aquarium, all females showed avoidance and aggression. Struggling may represent a way by which the female assesses the skill and endurance of males.