Abstract. A study of the structure of the fish community associated with a vermetid reef at Shiqmona, Israel, revealed the highest fish biodiversity (36 species) of any habitat along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Despite the prevalence of fish of Erythrean origin in the Levantine littoral, the benthic fish community at the site is entirely autochthonous. The families richest in members were the Blenniidae and the Gobiidae. Eighteen species are benthic, sixteen supra-benthic and two pelagic.