Production of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos in vitro: Premises and Promises


Authors' address: S. Nandi, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore-560 030, India E-mail:


Techniques for in vitro production (IVP) of buffalo embryos adopting the procedures developed in cattle have received increasing interest in the recent times. A high oocyte maturation, fertilization and cleavage rate and a low rate of blastocyst yield and calving following transfer of in vitro produced buffalo embryos have been obtained. The efficiency of IVP in buffalo is much lower than that in cattle. Several problems need to be resolved before IVP technology can be used regularly in buffalo breeding. This review attempts to present an overview of the different techniques used in buffalo to produce transferable embryos in vitro, namely in vitro maturation and fertilization of immature oocytes and in vitro development of the resulting cleaved embryos to the blastocyst stage before transfer. The problems associated with IVP, the possible solutions and the new biotechniques linked to IVP are discussed.