SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Baker, C. & Bronner-Fraser, M. 1997. The origin of the neural crest. Part II: An evolutionary perspective. Mech. Dev. 69, 1329.
  • Bronner-Fraser, M. & Fraser, S. 1988. Cell lineage analysis reveals multipotency of some avian neural crest cells. Nature 335, 161164.
  • Bronner-Fraser, M. & Fraser, S. 1989. Developmental potential of avian trunk neural crest cells in situ. Neuron 3, 755766.
  • Castresana, J., Feldmaier-Fuchs, G., Pääbo, S. 1998. Codon reassignment and amino acid composition in hemichordate mitochondria. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 37033707.
  • Corbo, J. C., Erives, A., Gregorio, A. D., Chang, A., Levine, M. 1997. Dorsoventral patterning of the vertebrate neural tube is conserved in a protochordate. Development 124, 23352344.
  • Enver, T. 1999. Pax5 is the deciding factor. Curr. Biol. 9, R933–R935.
  • Essex, L. J., Mayor, R., Sargent, M. G. 1993. Expression of Xenopus Snail in mesoderm and prospective neural fold. Dev. Dyn. 198, 108127.
  • Franz, T. 1993. The Splotch Sp1H and Splotch-delayed Spd alleles: Differential phenotypic effects on neural crest and limb musculature. Anat. Embryol. 187, 371377.
  • Gans, C. & Northcutt, R. G. 1983. Neural crest and the origin of vertebrates: A new head. Science 220, 268274.
  • Garcia-Castro, M. & Bronner-Fraser, M. 1999. Induction and differentiation of the neural crest. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 11, 695698.
  • Gionti, M., Ristoratore, F., DiGregorio, A., Aniello, F., Branno, M., DiLauro, R. 1998. CiHox5, a new Ciona intestinalis Hox-related gene, is involved in regionalization of the spinal cord. Dev. Genes Evol. 207, 515523.
  • Goulding, M. D., Lumsden, A., Gruss, P. 1993. Signals from the notochord and floorplate regulate the region-specific expression of two Pax genes in the developing spinal cord. Development 117, 10011016.
  • Graham, A. & Smith, A. 2001. Patterning the pharyngeal arches. Bioessays 23, 5461.
  • Hall, B. K. 2000. The neural crest as a fourth germ layer and vertebrates as quadroblastic not triploblastic. Evol. Dev. 2, 35.DOI: 10.1046/j.1525-142x.2000.00032.x
  • Hogan, B. L. M. 1996. Bone morphogenetic proteins: Multifunctional regulators of vertebrate development. Genes Dev. 10, 15801594.
  • Holland, L. Z. & Holland, N. D. 1996. Expression of AmphiHox1 and AmphiPax1 in amphioxus embryo treated with retinoic acid: Insights into evolution and patterning of the chordate nerve cord and pharynx. Development 122, 18291838.
  • Holland, L. Z. & Holland, N. D. 1998. Developmental gene expresion in amphioxus: New insights into the evolutionary origin of vertebrate brain regions, neural crest, and rostrocaudal segmentation. Am. Zool. 38, 647658.
  • Holland, L. Z., Schubert, M., Kozmik, Z., Holland, N. D. 1999. AmphiPax3/7, an amphioxus paired box gene: Insights into chordate myogenesis, neurogenesis, and the possible evolutionary precursor of definitive vertebrate neural crest. Evol. Dev. 1, 153165.DOI: 10.1046/j.1525-142x.1999.99019.x
  • Holland, N. D. & Chen, J. 2001. Origin and early evolution of the vertebrates: New insights from advances in molecular biology, anatomy, and palaeontology. Bioessays 23, 142151.
  • Holland, N. D., Holland, L. Z., Kozmik, Z. 1995. An amphioxus Pax gene, AmphiPax-1, expressed in embryonic endoderm, but not in mesoderm: Implications for the evolution of class I paired box genes. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotech. 4, 206214.
  • Holland, N. D., Panganiban, G., Henyey, E. L., Holland, L. Z. 1996. Sequence and developmental expression of AmphiDll, an amphioxus Distal-less gene transcribed in the ectoderm, epidermis and nervous system: Insights into evolution of craniate forebrain and neural crest. Development 122, 29112920.
  • Holland, P. W. H. & Garcia-Fernàndez, J. 1996. Hox genes and chordate evolution. Dev. Biol. 173, 382395.DOI: 10.1006/dbio.1996.0034
  • Holland, P. W. H., Garcia-Fernàndez, J., Williams, N. A., Sidow, A. 1994. Gene duplications and origins of vertebrate development. Development (Suppl.), 125–133.
  • Holland, P. W. H., Holland, L. Z., Williams, N. A., Holland, N. D. 1992. An amphioxus homeobox gene: Sequence conservation, spatial expression during development and insights into vertebrate evolution. Development 116, 653661.
  • Hunt, P., Guilisano, M., Cooke, M. et al. 1991. A distinct Hox code for the branchial region of the vertebrate head. Nature 353, 861864.
  • Ishida, K., Ueki, T., Satoh, N. 1996. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of eight epidermis-specific genes in the ascidian embryo. Zool. Sci. 13, 699709.
  • Jackman, W. R., Langeland, J. A., Kimmel, C. B. 2000. islet reveals segmentation in the amphioxus hindbrain homolog. Dev. Biol. 220, 1626.
  • Katsuyama, Y., Wada, S., Yasugi, S., Saiga, H. 1995. Expression of the labial group Hox gene HrHox-1 and its alteration induced by retinoic acid in development of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Development 121, 31973205.
  • Knight-Jones, E. W. 1952. On the nervous system of Saccoglossus cambrensis (Enteropneusta). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 236, 315354.
  • Kozmik, Z., Holland, N. D., Kalousova, A., Paces, J., Schubert, M., Holland, L. Z. 1999. Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: Developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain–hindbrain boundary region. Development 126, 12951304.
  • LaBonne, C. & Bronner-Fraser, M. 1998. Neural crest induction in Xenopus: Evidence for a two signal model. Development 125, 24032414.
  • LaBonne, C. & Bronner-Fraser, M. 1999. Molecular mechanisms of neural crest formation. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15, 81112.
  • LaBonne, C. & Bronner-Fraser, M. 2000. Snail-related transcriptional repressors are required in Xenopus for both the induction of the neural crest and its subsequent migration. Dev. Biol. 221, 195205.
  • Lacalli, T. C. & Hou, S. 1999. A reexamination of the epithelial sensory cells of amphioxus (Branchiostoma). Acta Zool. (Stockholm) 80, 125134.
  • Langeland, J., Tomsa, J. M., Jackman, W. R., Kimmel, C. B. 1998. An amphioxus snail gene: Expression in paraxial mesoderm and neural plate suggests a conserved role in patterning the chordate embryo. Dev. Genes Evol. 208, 569577.
  • LeDouarin, N. M. & Kalcheim, C. 1999. The Neural Crest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Levi, L., Douek, J., Osman, M., Bosch, T. C. G., Rinkevich, B. 1997. Cloning and characterization of BS-cadherin, a novel cadherin from the colonial urochordate Botryllus schlosseri. Gene 200, 117123.DOI: 10.1016/s0378-1119(97)00391-0
  • Liem, K. F. J., Tremml, G., Roelink, H., Jessel, T. M. 1995. Dorsal differentiation of neural plate cells induced by BMP-mediated sugnals from epidermal ectoderm. Cell 82, 969979.
  • Liu, J. & Jessel, T. M. 1998. A role for rhoB in delamination of neural crest cells from the dorsal neural tube. Development 125, 50555067.
  • Locascio, A., Aniello, F., Amoroso, A., Manzanares, M., Krumlauf, R., Branno, M. 1999. Patterning the ascidian nervous system: Structure, expression and transgenic analysis of the CiHox3 gene. Development 126, 47374748.
  • Maconochie, M., Krishnamurthy, R., Nonchev, S. et al. 1999. Regulation of Hoxa2 in cranial neural crest cells involves members of the AP-2 family. Development 126, 14831494.
  • Mansouri, A., Stoykova, A., Torres, M., Gruss, P. 1996. Dysgenesis of cephalic neural crest derivatives in Pax7–/– mutant mice. Development 122, 831838.
  • Manzanares, M., Wada, H., Itasaki, N., Trainor, P. A., Krumlauf, R., Holland, P. W. H. 2000. Conservation and elaboration of Hox gene regulation during evolution of the vertebrate head. Nature 408, 854857.DOI: 10.1038/35048570
  • Martin, A. 2001. Is tetralogy true? Lack of support for the ‘one-to-four rule’. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18, 8993.
  • Mayor, R., Morgan, R., Sargent, M. G. 1995. Induction of the prospective neural crest of Xenopus. Development 121, 767777.
  • Miya, T., Morita, K., Suzuki, A., Ueno, N., Satoh, N. 1997. Functional analysis of an ascidian homologue of vertebrate Bmp-2/Bmp-4 suggests its role in the inhibition of neural fate specification. Development 124, 51495159.
  • Miya, T., Morita, K., Ueno, N., Satoh, N. 1996. An ascidian homologue of vertebrate BMPs5–8 is expressed in the midline of the anterior neuroectoderm and in the midline of the ventral epidermis of embryo. Mech. Dev. 57, 181190.
  • Müller, T. S., Ebensperger, C., Neubüer, A. et al. 1996. Expression of avian Pax1 and Pax9 is intrinsically regulated in pharyngeal endoderm, but depends on environmental influences in paraxial mesoderm. Dev. Biol. 178, 403417.DOI: 10.1006/dbio.1996.0227
  • Nakagawa, S. & Takeichi, M. 1995. Neural crest cell–cell adhesion controlled by sequential and subpopulation-specific expression of novel cadherins. Development 121, 13211332.
  • Nakagawa, S. & Takeichi, M. 1998. Neural crest emigration from the neural tube depends on regulated cadherin expression. Development 125, 29632971.
  • Nishida, H. 1987. Cell lineage analysis in ascidian embryos by intracellular injection of a tracer enzyme. III. Up to the tissue restricted stage. Dev. Biol. 121, 526541.
  • Ogasawara, M., Wada, H., Peters, H., Satoh, N. 1999. Developmental expression of Pax1/9 gene in urochordate and hemichordate gills: Insight into function and evolution of pharyngeal epithelium. Development 126, 25392550.
  • Ogura, T. & Evans, R. M. 1995a. Evidence for two distinct retinoic acid response pathway for HOXB1 gene regulation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 92, 392396.
  • Ogura, T. & Evans, R. M. 1995b. A retinoic acid-triggered cascade of HOXB1 gene activation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 92, 387391.
  • Panopoulou, G., Clark, M. C., Holland, L. Z., Lehrach, H., Holland, N. D. 1998. AmphiBMP2/4, and amphioxus Bone Morphogenetic Protein closely related to Drosophila decapentaplegic and vertebrate BMP2 and BMP4: Insights into evolution of dorsoventral axis specification. Dev. Dyn. 213, 130139.DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0177(199809)213:1<130::aid-aja13>3.3.co;2-z
  • Prince, V. & Lumsden, A. 1994. Hoxa-2 expression in normal and transposed rhombomeres: Independent regulation in the neural tube and neural crest. Development 120, 911923.
  • Robinson, G. W. & Mahon, K. A. 1994. Differential amd overlapping expression domains of Dlx-2 and Dlx-3 suggest distinct roles for Distal-less homeobox genes in craniofacial development. Mech. Dev. 48, 199215.
  • Ruppert, E. E. 1997. Cephalochordata (Acrania). In Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, vol. 15 (Eds F. W. Harrison & E. E. Ruppert), pp. 349–504. Wiley-Liss, New York.
  • Selleck, M. A. J. & Bronner-Fraser, M. 1995. Origins of the avian neural crest: The role of neural plate–epidermal interactions. Development 121, 525538.
  • Shimeld, S. M. 1999a. The evolution of dorsoventral pattern formation in the chordate neural tube. Am. Zool. 39, 641649.
  • Shimeld, S. M. 1999b. The evolution of the hedgehog gene family in chordates: Insights from amphioxus hedgehog. Dev. Genes Evol. 209, 4047.
  • Shimeld, S. M. & Holland, P. W. H. 2000. Vertebrate innovations. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 44494452.
  • Spring, J. 1997. Vertebrate evolution by interspecific hybridization – are we polyploid? FEBS Lett. 400, 28.
  • Torrence, S. A. & Cloney, R. A. 1982. Nervous system of ascidian larvae: Caudal primary sensory neurons. Zoomorphology 99, 103115.
  • Turbeville, J. M., Schulz, J. R., Raff, R. A. 1994. Deuterostome phylogeny and the sister group of the chordates: Evidence from molecules and morphology. Mol. Biol. Evol. 11, 648655.
  • Wada, H., Garcia-Fernandez, J., Holland, P. W. H. 1999a. Colinear and segmental expression of amphioxus Hox genes. Dev. Biol. 213, 131141.DOI: 10.1006/dbio.1999.9369
  • Wada, H., Holland, P. W. H., Sato, S., Yamamoto, H., Satoh, N. 1997. Neural tube is partially dorsalized by overexpression of HrPax-37: The ascidian homologue of Pax-3 and Pax-7. Dev. Biol. 187, 240252.DOI: 10.1006/dbio.1997.8626
  • Wada, H., Holland, P. W. H., Satoh, N. 1996a. Origin of patterning in neural tubes. Nature384, 123.
  • Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N., Holland, P. W. H. 1998. Tripartite organization of the ancestral chordate brain and the antiquity of placodes: Insights from ascidian Pax-2/5/8, Hox and Otx genes. Development 125, 1131122.
  • Wada, H. & Satoh, N. 1994. Details of the evolutionary history from invertebrates to vertebrates, as deduced from the sequences of 18S rDNA. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 91, 18011804.
  • Wada, H. & Satoh, N. 2001. Patterning the protochordate neural tube. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 11, 1621.
  • Wada, S., Katsuyama, Y., Saiga, H. 1999b. Anteroposterior patterning of the epidermis by inductive influences from the vegetal hemisphere cells in the ascidian embryo. Development 126, 49554963.
  • Wada, S., Katsuyama, Y., Sato, Y., Itoh, C., Saiga, H. 1996b. Hroth, an orthodenticle-related homeobox gene of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi: Its expression and putative roles in the axis formation during embryogenesis. Mech. Dev. 60, 5971.
  • Wada, S. & Saiga, H. 1999. Cloning and embryonic expression of Hrsna, a snail family gene of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi: Implication in the origins of mechanisms for mesoderm specification and body axis formation in chordates. Develop. Growth Differ. 41, 918.
  • Williams, N. A. & Holland, P. W. H. 1996. Old head on young shoulders. Nature383, 490.