Origin and evolution of the neural crest: A hypothetical reconstruction of its evolutionary history
Article first published online: 20 DEC 2001
Development, Growth & Differentiation
Volume 43, Issue 5, pages 509–520, October 2001
How to Cite
Wada, H. (2001), Origin and evolution of the neural crest: A hypothetical reconstruction of its evolutionary history. Development, Growth & Differentiation, 43: 509–520. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-169X.2001.00600.x
- Issue published online: 20 DEC 2001
- Article first published online: 20 DEC 2001
- 1997. The origin of the neural crest. Part II: An evolutionary perspective. Mech. Dev. 69, 13–29. &
- 1988. Cell lineage analysis reveals multipotency of some avian neural crest cells. Nature 335, 161–164. &
- 1989. Developmental potential of avian trunk neural crest cells in situ. Neuron 3, 755–766. &
- 1998. Codon reassignment and amino acid composition in hemichordate mitochondria. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3703–3707. , ,
- 1997. Dorsoventral patterning of the vertebrate neural tube is conserved in a protochordate. Development 124, 2335–2344. , , , ,
- 1999. Pax5 is the deciding factor. Curr. Biol. 9, R933–R935.
- 1993. Expression of Xenopus Snail in mesoderm and prospective neural fold. Dev. Dyn. 198, 108–127. , ,
- 1993. The Splotch Sp1H and Splotch-delayed Spd alleles: Differential phenotypic effects on neural crest and limb musculature. Anat. Embryol. 187, 371–377.
- 1983. Neural crest and the origin of vertebrates: A new head. Science 220, 268–274. &
- 1999. Induction and differentiation of the neural crest. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 11, 695–698. &
- 1998. CiHox5, a new Ciona intestinalis Hox-related gene, is involved in regionalization of the spinal cord. Dev. Genes Evol. 207, 515–523. , , , , ,
- 1993. Signals from the notochord and floorplate regulate the region-specific expression of two Pax genes in the developing spinal cord. Development 117, 1001–1016. , ,
- 2001. Patterning the pharyngeal arches. Bioessays 23, 54–61. &
- 2000. The neural crest as a fourth germ layer and vertebrates as quadroblastic not triploblastic. Evol. Dev. 2, 3–5.DOI: 10.1046/j.1525-142x.2000.00032.x
- 1996. Bone morphogenetic proteins: Multifunctional regulators of vertebrate development. Genes Dev. 10, 1580–1594.
- 1996. Expression of AmphiHox1 and AmphiPax1 in amphioxus embryo treated with retinoic acid: Insights into evolution and patterning of the chordate nerve cord and pharynx. Development 122, 1829–1838. &
- 1998. Developmental gene expresion in amphioxus: New insights into the evolutionary origin of vertebrate brain regions, neural crest, and rostrocaudal segmentation. Am. Zool. 38, 647–658. &
- 1999. AmphiPax3/7, an amphioxus paired box gene: Insights into chordate myogenesis, neurogenesis, and the possible evolutionary precursor of definitive vertebrate neural crest. Evol. Dev. 1, 153–165.DOI: 10.1046/j.1525-142x.1999.99019.x , , ,
- 2001. Origin and early evolution of the vertebrates: New insights from advances in molecular biology, anatomy, and palaeontology. Bioessays 23, 142–151. &
- 1995. An amphioxus Pax gene, AmphiPax-1, expressed in embryonic endoderm, but not in mesoderm: Implications for the evolution of class I paired box genes. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotech. 4, 206–214. , ,
- 1996. Sequence and developmental expression of AmphiDll, an amphioxus Distal-less gene transcribed in the ectoderm, epidermis and nervous system: Insights into evolution of craniate forebrain and neural crest. Development 122, 2911–2920. , , ,
- 1996. Hox genes and chordate evolution. Dev. Biol. 173, 382–395.DOI: 10.1006/dbio.1996.0034 &
- 1994. Gene duplications and origins of vertebrate development. Development (Suppl.), 125–133. , , ,
- 1992. An amphioxus homeobox gene: Sequence conservation, spatial expression during development and insights into vertebrate evolution. Development 116, 653–661. , , ,
- 1991. A distinct Hox code for the branchial region of the vertebrate head. Nature 353, 861–864. , , et al.
- 1996. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of eight epidermis-specific genes in the ascidian embryo. Zool. Sci. 13, 699–709. , ,
- 2000. islet reveals segmentation in the amphioxus hindbrain homolog. Dev. Biol. 220, 16–26. , ,
- 1995. Expression of the labial group Hox gene HrHox-1 and its alteration induced by retinoic acid in development of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Development 121, 3197–3205. , , ,
- 1952. On the nervous system of Saccoglossus cambrensis (Enteropneusta). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 236, 315–354.
- 1999. Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: Developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain–hindbrain boundary region. Development 126, 1295–1304. , , , , ,
- 1998. Neural crest induction in Xenopus: Evidence for a two signal model. Development 125, 2403–2414. &
- 1999. Molecular mechanisms of neural crest formation. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15, 81–112. &
- 2000. Snail-related transcriptional repressors are required in Xenopus for both the induction of the neural crest and its subsequent migration. Dev. Biol. 221, 195–205. &
- 1999. A reexamination of the epithelial sensory cells of amphioxus (Branchiostoma). Acta Zool. (Stockholm) 80, 125–134. &
- 1998. An amphioxus snail gene: Expression in paraxial mesoderm and neural plate suggests a conserved role in patterning the chordate embryo. Dev. Genes Evol. 208, 569–577. , , ,
- 1999. The Neural Crest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. &
- 1997. Cloning and characterization of BS-cadherin, a novel cadherin from the colonial urochordate Botryllus schlosseri. Gene 200, 117–123.DOI: 10.1016/s0378-1119(97)00391-0 , , , ,
- 1995. Dorsal differentiation of neural plate cells induced by BMP-mediated sugnals from epidermal ectoderm. Cell 82, 969–979. , , ,
- 1998. A role for rhoB in delamination of neural crest cells from the dorsal neural tube. Development 125, 5055–5067. &
- 1999. Patterning the ascidian nervous system: Structure, expression and transgenic analysis of the CiHox3 gene. Development 126, 4737–4748. , , , , ,
- 1999. Regulation of Hoxa2 in cranial neural crest cells involves members of the AP-2 family. Development 126, 1483–1494. , , et al.
- 1996. Dysgenesis of cephalic neural crest derivatives in Pax7–/– mutant mice. Development 122, 831–838. , , ,
- 2000. Conservation and elaboration of Hox gene regulation during evolution of the vertebrate head. Nature 408, 854–857.DOI: 10.1038/35048570 , , , , ,
- 2001. Is tetralogy true? Lack of support for the ‘one-to-four rule’. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18, 89–93.
- 1995. Induction of the prospective neural crest of Xenopus. Development 121, 767–777. , ,
- 1997. Functional analysis of an ascidian homologue of vertebrate Bmp-2/Bmp-4 suggests its role in the inhibition of neural fate specification. Development 124, 5149–5159. , , , ,
- 1996. An ascidian homologue of vertebrate BMPs5–8 is expressed in the midline of the anterior neuroectoderm and in the midline of the ventral epidermis of embryo. Mech. Dev. 57, 181–190. , , ,
- 1996. Expression of avian Pax1 and Pax9 is intrinsically regulated in pharyngeal endoderm, but depends on environmental influences in paraxial mesoderm. Dev. Biol. 178, 403–417.DOI: 10.1006/dbio.1996.0227 , , et al.
- 1995. Neural crest cell–cell adhesion controlled by sequential and subpopulation-specific expression of novel cadherins. Development 121, 1321–1332. &
- 1998. Neural crest emigration from the neural tube depends on regulated cadherin expression. Development 125, 2963–2971. &
- 1987. Cell lineage analysis in ascidian embryos by intracellular injection of a tracer enzyme. III. Up to the tissue restricted stage. Dev. Biol. 121, 526–541.
- 1999. Developmental expression of Pax1/9 gene in urochordate and hemichordate gills: Insight into function and evolution of pharyngeal epithelium. Development 126, 2539–2550. , , ,
- 1995a. Evidence for two distinct retinoic acid response pathway for HOXB1 gene regulation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 92, 392–396. &
- 1995b. A retinoic acid-triggered cascade of HOXB1 gene activation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 92, 387–391. &
- 1998. AmphiBMP2/4, and amphioxus Bone Morphogenetic Protein closely related to Drosophila decapentaplegic and vertebrate BMP2 and BMP4: Insights into evolution of dorsoventral axis specification. Dev. Dyn. 213, 130–139.DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0177(199809)213:1<130::aid-aja13>3.3.co;2-z , , , ,
- 1994. Hoxa-2 expression in normal and transposed rhombomeres: Independent regulation in the neural tube and neural crest. Development 120, 911–923. &
- 1994. Differential amd overlapping expression domains of Dlx-2 and Dlx-3 suggest distinct roles for Distal-less homeobox genes in craniofacial development. Mech. Dev. 48, 199–215. &
- 1997. Cephalochordata (Acrania). In Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, vol. 15 (Eds F. W. Harrison & E. E. Ruppert), pp. 349–504. Wiley-Liss, New York.
- 1995. Origins of the avian neural crest: The role of neural plate–epidermal interactions. Development 121, 525–538. &
- 1999a. The evolution of dorsoventral pattern formation in the chordate neural tube. Am. Zool. 39, 641–649.
- 1999b. The evolution of the hedgehog gene family in chordates: Insights from amphioxus hedgehog. Dev. Genes Evol. 209, 40–47.
- 2000. Vertebrate innovations. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 4449–4452. &
- 1997. Vertebrate evolution by interspecific hybridization – are we polyploid? FEBS Lett. 400, 2–8.
- 1982. Nervous system of ascidian larvae: Caudal primary sensory neurons. Zoomorphology 99, 103–115. &
- 1994. Deuterostome phylogeny and the sister group of the chordates: Evidence from molecules and morphology. Mol. Biol. Evol. 11, 648–655. , ,
- 1999a. Colinear and segmental expression of amphioxus Hox genes. Dev. Biol. 213, 131–141.DOI: 10.1006/dbio.1999.9369 , ,
- 1997. Neural tube is partially dorsalized by overexpression of HrPax-37: The ascidian homologue of Pax-3 and Pax-7. Dev. Biol. 187, 240–252.DOI: 10.1006/dbio.1997.8626 , , , ,
- 1996a. Origin of patterning in neural tubes. Nature384, 123. , ,
- 1998. Tripartite organization of the ancestral chordate brain and the antiquity of placodes: Insights from ascidian Pax-2/5/8, Hox and Otx genes. Development 125, 113–1122. , , ,
- 1994. Details of the evolutionary history from invertebrates to vertebrates, as deduced from the sequences of 18S rDNA. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 91, 1801–1804. &
- 2001. Patterning the protochordate neural tube. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 11, 16–21. &
- 1999b. Anteroposterior patterning of the epidermis by inductive influences from the vegetal hemisphere cells in the ascidian embryo. Development 126, 4955–4963. , ,
- 1996b. Hroth, an orthodenticle-related homeobox gene of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi: Its expression and putative roles in the axis formation during embryogenesis. Mech. Dev. 60, 59–71. , , , ,
- 1999. Cloning and embryonic expression of Hrsna, a snail family gene of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi: Implication in the origins of mechanisms for mesoderm specification and body axis formation in chordates. Develop. Growth Differ. 41, 9–18. &
- 1996. Old head on young shoulders. Nature383, 490. &