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Keywords:

  • Bernoulli;
  • model;
  • samara;
  • turbulence;
  • updraft

Some mechanisms that promote long-distance dispersal of tree seeds by wind are explored. Winged seeds must be lifted above the canopy by updrafts to have a chance of further dispersal in high velocity horizontal winds aloft or in landscape-scale convection cells. Shear-induced turbulent eddies of a scale up to one-third of canopy height provide a lifting mechanism. Preliminary data suggest that all seeds of a given species may be viable candidates for uplift and long-distance dispersal, despite the evidence that slow-falling seeds are dispersed farther under any given wind conditions. Turbulence is argued more often and more extensively to advance long-distance dispersal than to retard it. Seeds may take advantage of ‘Bernoulli sailing’ to move with faster than average winds. Elasticity of branches and trees may play a role in regulating the release of seeds into unusually favorable winds. Dispersal is at least biphasic, and the study of long-distance dispersal calls for mixed models and mixed methods of gathering data.