How does an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) affect the lives of patients and their families?


  • Marion Eckert RN, DipApplSc(FUSA), HyperbCert, CardCareCert, GradDipCardNurs(Adel), MNSc(Adel),

  • Tina Jones RN, CritCareCert, BN(USA), MNSc(Adel)

Correspondence: Marion Eckert, Joanna Briggs Institute for Evidence Nursing and Midwifery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia. Email:


This study aimed to identify the lived experience of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and their families. The methodology used was interpretative phenomenology. Unstructured interviews were conducted with three family members and three ICD recipients. Using a methodological approach outlined by van Manen, the participants transcribed texts were analysed looking for similar concepts and ideas that developed into themes that explicated the meaning of this phenomena. The themes that emerged were: dependence, which encompassed their perceptions about the life-saving device; the memory of their first defibrillation experience; lifestyle changes, which incorporated modification techniques; lack of control, which highlighted feelings such as fear, anxiety and powerlessness; mind game, which illustrated psychological challenges; and the issue of security, demonstrating how ‘being there’ and not ‘being there’ impacted on their everyday lives. The long-term outcomes of living with an ICD are important considerations for all health-care providers. This research highlights the everyday activities of recipients, the lifestyle changes they have made, the emotional significance of the device and the psychological coping strategies that the participants have adopted. The findings of this research will allow health-care professionals to be better prepared to provide education and support for ICD recipients and their families in regards to issues related to insertion of the device during the postinsertion recovery period and for long-term management after hospital discharge.