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Vivian Bullwinkel: Sole survivor of the 1942 massacre of Australian nurses

Authors

  • Elizabeth M Norman RN, PhD, FAAN,

    1. Professor, Division of Nursing, School of Education, New York University, Monclair, New Jersey, United States of America
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  • Dorothy Angell RN, RM, MED, FRCNA, FCNNSW

    1. Professor of Nursing (Retired ), Monash University, Postgraduate Student, LaTrobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
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  • This article was previously published in Nursing History Review 1999; 7: 97–112, a publication of the American Association for the History of Nursing. ©Springer Publishing Company.

Correspondence: Elizabeth M Norman Professor, Division of Nursing, School of Education, New York University, 8 South Brookwood Drive Monclair NJ 07042, USA

Abstract

This article describes the series of tragedies 65 Australian Army Nursing Service (AANS) women suffered during the fall of Singapore in February 1942, until their rescue from a prisoner-of-war camp in September 1945. The story unfolds through the experiences of one nurse, Sister Vivian Bullwinkel, who was the sole survivor of the massacre of a number of these women on Bangka Island; the article examines her immediate and enduring reaction to this incident.

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