• 1
    Boberg KM, Aadland E, Jahnsen J, Raknerud N, Stiris M, Bell H. Incidence and prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis in a Norwegian population. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1998; 33: 99103.
  • 2
    Alvarez F, Berg PA, Bianchi FB et al. International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group Report: Review of criteria for diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1999; 31: 92938.
  • 3
    Manns MP, Strassburg CP. Autoimmune hepatitis: Clinical challenges. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 150217.
  • 4
    Gregorio GV, Portman B, Reid F et al. Autoimmune hepatitis in childhood: A 20-year experience. Hepatology 1997; 25: 5417.
  • 5
    Benten D, Widjaja A, Von Depka M et al. Autoimmune hepatitis associated with coagulation disorders and immunethyreopathy. Z. Gastroenterol. 2001; 39: 83740.
  • 6
    Strassburg CP, Manns MP. Antinuclear antibody (ANA) patterns in hepatic and extrahepatic autoimmune disease. J. Hepatol. 1999; 31: 751.
  • 7
    Strassburg CP, Alex B, Zindy F et al. Identification of cyclin A as a molecular target of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in hepatic and non-hepatic autoimmune diseases. J. Hepatol. 1996; 25: 85966.
  • 8
    Manns MP, Griffin KJ, Sullivan KF, Johnson EF. LKM-1 autoantibodies recognize a short linear sequence in P450IID6, a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase. J. Clin. Invest. 1991; 88: 13708.
  • 9
    Obermayer-Straub P, Strassburg C, Clemente M-G, Philipp T, Tukey RH, Manns MP. Recognition of three different epitopes on UDP-glucuronosyltransferases by LKM-3 antibodies in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis D. Gut 1995; 37: A100.
  • 10
    Manns M, Gerken G, Kyriatsoulis A, Staritz M, Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH. Characterization of a new subgroup of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis by autoantibodies against a soluble liver antigen. Lancet 1987; I: 2924.
  • 11
    Wies I, Brunner S, Henninger J et al. Identification of target antigen for SLA/LP autoantibodies in autoimmune hepatitis. Lancet 2000; 355: 151015.
  • 12
    Manns MP, Krüger M. Genetics in liver diseases. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: 167697.
  • 13
    Czaja AJ, Strettell M, Thomson LJ et al. Associations between alleles of the major histocompatibility complex and type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 1997; 25: 31723.
  • 14
    Czaja AJ, Cassani F, Catala M, Valentini P, Bianchi FB. Antinuclear antibodies and patterns of nuclear immunofluorescence type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1997; 8: 168896.
  • 15
    Donaldson PT, Doherty DG, Hayllar KM, McFarlane IG, Johnson PJ, Williams R. Susceptibility to autoimmune chronic active hepatitis: Human leukocyte antigens DR 4 and A1–B8-DR-3 are independent risk factors. Hepatology 1991; 13: 7016.
  • 16
    Czaja AJ, Carpenter HA, Santrach PJ, Moore SB. Significance of HLA DR4 in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 15027.
  • 17
    Czaja AJ, Carpenter HA, Santrach PJ, Moore SB. Genetic predispositions for the immunological features of chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1993; 18: 81622.
  • 18
    Cookson S, Constantini PK, Clare M et al. Frequency and nature of cytokine gene polymorphisms in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 1999; 30: 8516.
  • 19
    Scully LJ, Toze C, Sengar DPS, Goldstein R. Early-onset autoimmune hepatitis is associated with a C4A gene deletion. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 147884.
  • 20
    Agarwal K, Czaja AJ, Jones DE, Donaldson PT. Cytotoxic T lymphocyteantigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 2000; 31: 4953.
  • 21
    Djilali-Saiah I, Ouellette P, Caillat-Zucman S, Debray D, Kohn JI, Alvarez F. CTLA-4/CD 28 region polymorphisms in children from families with autoimmune hepatitis. Hum. Immunol. 2001; 62: 135662.
  • 22
    Vogel A, Strassburg CP, Manns MP. Genetic association of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms with primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 2002; 35: 12631.
  • 23
    Vogel A, Liermann H, Harms A, Strassburg CP, Manns MP, Obermayer-Straub P. Autoimmune regulator AIRE: Evidence for genetic differences between autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis as part of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1. Hepatology 2001; 33: 104752.
  • 24
    Mulder AHL, Horst G, Haagsma EB, Limburg PC, Kleibeuker JH, Kallenberg GM. Prevalence and characterization of neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in autoimmune liver diseases. Hepatology 1993; 17: 41117.
  • 25
    Targan SR, Landers C, Vidrich A, Czaja AJ. High titer antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in type-1 autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 115966.
  • 26
    Wächter B, Kyriasoulis A, Lohse AW, Gerken G, Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH, Manns M. Characterization of liver cytokeratin as a major antigen of anti-SLA antibodies. J. Hepatol. 1990; 11: 2329.
  • 27
    Volkmann MML, Bäurle A, Heid H et al. Soluble liver antigen: Isolation of a 35 kD recombinant protein (SLA-P35) specifically recognizing sera from patients with autoimmune hepatitis type 3. Hepatology 2001; 33: 5916.
  • 28
    Löhr H, Treichel U, Poralla T, Manns M, Meyer zum Büschenfelde K-H, Fleischer B. The human hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor is a target antigen for liver infiltrating T cells in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology 1990; 12: 131420.
  • 29
    Treichel U, Gerken G, Rossol S, Rotthaue HW, Meyer zum Büschenfelde K-H, Portalla T. Autoantibodies against the human asialoglycoprotein receptor: Effects of therapy in autoimmune and virus-induced chronic active hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1993; 19: 5563.
  • 30
    Martini E, Abuaf N, Cavalli F, Durand V, Johanet C, Homberg JC. Antibody to liver cytosol (anti-LC1) in patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis type 2. Hepatology 1988; 8: 16626.
  • 31
    Czaja AJ, Cassani F, Cataleta M, Valentini P, Bianchi FB. Frequency and significance of antibodies to actin in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 1996; 24: 106873.
  • 32
    Czaja AJ, Morshed SA, Parveen S, Nishioka M. Antibodies to single-stranded and double-stranded DNA in antinuclear antibody-positive type 1-autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 1997; 26: 56772.
  • 33
    McFarlane IG, Hegarty JE, McSorley CG, McFarlane BM, Williams R. Antibodies to liver-specific protein predict outcome of treatment withdrawal in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Lancet 1984; 2: 9546.
  • 34
    Treichel U, Poralla T, Hess G, Manns M, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH. Autoantibodies to human asialoglycoprotein receptor in autoimmune-type chronic hepatitis. Hepatology 1990; 11: 60612.
  • 35
    Muratori L, Cataleta M, Muratori P, Lenzi M, Bianchi FB. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 and liver cytosol antibody type 1 concentrations in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis. Gut 1998; 42: 7216.
  • 36
    Czaja AJ, Manns MP, Homburger HA. Frequency and significance of antibodies to liver/kidney microsome type 1 in adults with chronic active hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 12905.
  • 37
    Czaja AJ. Behavior and significance of autoantibodies in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1999; 30: 394401.
  • 38
    Kanzler S, Weidemann C, Gerken G et al. Clinical significance of autoantibodies to soluble liver antigen in autoimmune hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1999; 31: 63540.
  • 39
    Homberg JC, Abuaf N, Bernard O et al. Chronic active hepatitis associated with anti-liver/kidney microsome type 1: A second type of ‘autoimmune’ hepatitis. Hepatology 1987; 7: 13339.
  • 40
    Doherty DG, Donaldson PT, Underhill JA et al. Allelic sequence variation in the HLA class II genes and proteins on patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 1994; 19: 60915.
  • 41
    Marcos Y, Fainboim HA, Capucchio M et al. Two locus involvement in the association of human leukocyte antigen with the extrahepatic manifestations of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1994; 19: 13714.
  • 42
    Seki T, Ota M, Furuta S et al. HLA class II molecules and autoimmune hepatitis susceptibility in Japanese patients. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 10417.
  • 43
    Kirk AP, Jain S, Pocock S, Thomas HC, Sherlock S. Late results of the Royal Free Hospital prospective controlled trial of prednisolone therapy in hepatitis B surface antigen negative chronic active hepatitis. Gut 1980; 21: 7883.
  • 44
    Read AE, Sherlock S, Harrison CV. Active juvenile cirrhosis considered as part of a systemic disease associated and the effect of corticosteroid therapy. Gut 1963; 4: 37893.
  • 45
    Roberts SK, Therneau TM, Czaja AJ. Prognosis of histological cirrhosis in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 84857.
  • 46
    Schvarcz R, Glaumann H, Weiland O. Survival and histological resolution of fibrosis in patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1993; 18: 1523.
  • 47
    Newton JL, Burt AD, Park JB, Mathew J, Bassendine MF, James OF. Autoimmune hepatitis in older patients. Age Ageing 1997; 26: 4414.
  • 48
    Schramm C, Kanzler S, Zum Buschenfelde KH, Galle PR, Lohse AW. Autoimmune hepatitis in the elderly. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 158791.
    Direct Link:
  • 49
    Broome UOR, Loof L, Bodemar G et al. Natural history and prognostic factors in 305 Swedish patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gut 1996; 38: 61015.
  • 50
    Park SZ, Nagorney DM, Czaja AJ. Hepatocellular carcinoma in autoimmune hepatitis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2000; 45: 19448.
  • 51
    Burroughs AK, Bassendine MF, Thomas HC, Sherlock S. Primary liver cell cancer in autoimmune chronic liver disease. BMJ 1981; 282: 273.
  • 52
    Geall MG, Schoenfield LJ, Summerskill WHJ. Classification and treatment of chronic active liver disease. Gastroenterology 1968; 55: 7249.
  • 53
    Soloway RD, Summerskill WH, Baggenstoss AH et al. Clinical, biochemical, and histological remission of severe chronic active liver disease: A controlled study of treatments and early prognosis. Gastroenterology 1972; 63: 82033.
  • 54
    Cooksley WGE, Bradbear RA, Robinson W et al. The prognosis of chronic active hepatitis without cirrhosis in relation to bridging necrosis. Hepatology 1986; 6: 3458.
  • 55
    Manns MP, Strassburg CP. Autoimmune Hepatitis. In: O’Grady JG, Lake JR, Howdle DP, eds. Comprehensive Clinical Hepatology. London: Mosby, 2000; 16.114.
  • 56
    Sanchez-Urdazpal L, Czaja AJ, Van Holk B. Prognostic features and role of liver transplantation in severe corticoid-treated autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1991; 15: 21521.
  • 57
    Summerskill WHJ, Korman MG, Ammon HV, Baggenstoss AH. Prednisone for chronic active liver disease: Dose titration, standard dose and combination with azathioprine compound. Gut 1975; 16: 87683.
  • 58
    Heneghan MA, McFarlane IG. Current and novel immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 2002; 35: 713.
  • 59
    Danielson A, Prytz H. Oral budesonide for treatment of autoimmune chronic hepatitis. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 1994; 8: 58590.
  • 60
    Czaja AJ, Lindor KD. Failure of budesonide in a pilot study of treatment-dependent autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 131216.
  • 61
    Rebollo Bernardez J, Cifuentes Mimoso C, Pinar Moreno A et al. Deflazacort for long-term maintenance of remission in type I autoimmune hepatitis. Rev. Esp. Enferm. Dig. 1999; 91: 6308.
  • 62
    Sherman KE, Narkewicz M, Pinto PC. Cyclosporine in the management of corticosteroid-resistant type 1 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1994; 21: 10407.
  • 63
    Jackson LD, Song E. Cyclosporn in the treatment of corticosteroid resistant autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Gut 1995; 36: 45961.
  • 64
    Alvarez F, Ciocca M, Canero-Velasco C et al. Short-term cyclosporine induces a remission of autoimmune hepatitis in children. J. Hepatol. 1999; 30: 2227.
  • 65
    Debray D, Maggiore G, Giradet JP, Mallet E, Bernard O. Efficacy of cyclosporin A in children with type 2 autoimmune hepatits. J. Pediatr. 1999; 135: 11114.
  • 66
    Fernandez NF, Redeker AG, Vierling JM, Villamil FG, Fong T-L. Cyclosporine therapy in patients with steroid resistant autoimmune hepatitis. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 2418.
    Direct Link:
  • 67
    Van Thiel DH, Wright H, Carroll P et al. Tacrolimus: A potential new treatment for autoimmune chronic active hepatitis: Results of an open-label preliminary trial. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1995; 90: 7716.
  • 68
    Richardson PD, James PD, Ryder SD. Mycophenolate mofetil for maintenance of remission in autoimmune hepatitis in patients resistant to or intolerant of azathioprine. J. Hepatol. 2000; 33: 3715.
  • 69
    Kanzler S, Gerken G, Dienes HP, Meyer zum Büschenfelde K-H, Lohse AW. Cyclophosphamide as alternative immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune hepatitis: Report of three cases. Z. Gastroenterol. 1996; 35: 5718.
  • 70
    Calmus Y, Gane P, Rouger P, Poupon R. Hepatic expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules in primary biliary cirrhosis: Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid. Hepatology 1990; 11: 1215.
  • 71
    Nakamura K, Yoneda M, Yokohama S et al. Efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid in Japanese patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 1998; 13: 4905.
  • 72
    Van Hoogstraten HJ, Vleggaar FP, Boland GJ et al. Budesonide or prednisone in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid in primary sclerosing cholangitis: A randomized double-blind pilot study. Belgian-Dutch PSC Study Group. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 201522.
  • 73
    Samuel D, Figueiro J, Bismuth H. Liver transplantation: Indications and patient selection. In: O’Grady J, Lake JR, Howdle PD, eds. Comprehensive Clinical Hepatology. London: Mosby, 2000; 34.117.
  • 74
    Tillmann HL, Jackel E, Manns MP. Liver transplantation in autoimmune liver disease: Selection of patients. Hepatogastroenterology 1999; 46: 30539.
  • 75
    Duclos-Vallee JC, Johanet C, Bach JF, Yamamoto AM. Autoantibodies associated with acute rejection after liver transplantation for type-2 autoimmune hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 2000; 33: 1636.
  • 76
    Narumi S, Hakamada K, Sasaki M et al. Liver transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis: Rejection and recurrence. Transplant. Proc. 1999; 31: 19556.
  • 77
    Neuberger J. Incidence, timing, and risk factors for acute and chronic rejection. Liver Transpl. Surg. 1999; 5: S306.
  • 78
    Reich DJ, Fiel I, Guarrera JV et al. Liver transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 2000; 32: 693700.
  • 79
    Wright HL, Bou-Abboud CF, Hassanenstein T et al. Disease recurrence and rejection following liver transplantation for autoimmune chronic active liver disease. Transplantation 1992; 53: 1369.
  • 80
    Manns MP, Bahr MJ. Recurrent autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation: When non-self becomes self. Hepatology 2000; 32: 86870.
  • 81
    Milkiewicz P, Hubscher SG, Skiba G, Hathaway M, Elias E. Recurrence of autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1999; 68: 2536.
  • 82
    Prados E, Cuervas-Mons V, De La Mata M et al. Outcome of autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1998; 66: 164550.
  • 83
    Ratziu V, Samuel D, Sebagh M et al. Long-term follow-up after liver transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis: evidence of recurrence of primary disease. J. Hepatol. 1999; 30: 13141.
  • 84
    Czaja AJ. Frequency and nature of the variant syndromes of autoimmune liver disease. Hepatology 1998; 28: 3605.
  • 85
    Colombato LA, Alvarez F, Cote J, Huet PM. Autoimmune cholangiopathy: The result of consecutive primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis? Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 183943.
  • 86
    Johnson PJ, McFarlane IG. Meeting report: International autoimmune hepatitis group. Hepatology 1993; 18: 9981005.
  • 87
    Strassburg CP, Jaeckel E, Manns MP. Anti-mitochondrial antibodies and other immunological tests in primary biliary cirrhosis. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 1999; 11: 595601.
  • 88
    Ben-Ari Z, Dhillon AP, Sherlock S. Autoimmune cholangiopathy: Part of the spectrum of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1993; 18: 1015.
  • 89
    Michieletti P, Wanless IR, Katz A et al. Antimitochondrial antibody negative primary biliary cirrhosis: A distinct syndrome of autoimmune cholangitis. Gut 1994; 35: 2605.