SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Crawford JM & Boyer JL. Clinicopathology conferences: Inflammation-induced cholestasis. Hepatology 1998; 28: 253 60.
  • 2
    Farrell GC. Drug-induced Liver Disease. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1994.
  • 3
    Zimmerman HJ & Maddrey WC. Toxic and drug-induced hepatitis. In: Schiff L, Schiff ER, eds. Schiff’s Diseases of the Liver, 7th edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1993; 707 83.
  • 4
    Gordon SC, Reddy KR, Schiff L, Schiff ER. Prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis secondary to acute hepatitis A. Ann. Intern. Med. 1984; 101: 635 7.
  • 5
    Zauli D, Crespi C, Fusconi M, Bonazzi L, Bianco Bianchi F, Pisi E. Different course of acute hepatitis B in elderly adults. J. Gerontol. 1985; 40: 415 18.
  • 6
    Sciot R, Van Damme B, Desmet VJ. Cholestatic features in hepatitis A. J. Hepatol. 1986; 3: 172 81.
  • 7
    Erlinger S. Cholestasis. In: Schiff ER, Sorrell MF, Maddrey WC, eds. Schiff’s Diseases of the Liver, 8th edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1999; 611 29.
  • 8
    Dienstag JL. Hepatitis A. In: Bircher J, Benhamou JP, McIntyre N, Rizzetto M, Rodes J, eds. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999; 870 5.
  • 9
    Dusheiko G. Hepatitis B. In: Bircher J, Benhamou JP, McIntyre N, Rizzetto M, Rodes J, eds. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999; 876 96.
  • 10
    Krawczynski K. Hepatitis E. In: Bircher J, Benhamou JP, McIntyre N, Rizzetto M, Rodes J, eds. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999; 922 6.
  • 11
    Reichen J & Simon FR. Cholestasis. In: Arias IM, Boyer JL, Fausto N, Jakoby WB, Schachter DA, Shafritz DA, eds. The Liver: Biology and Pathobiology, 3rd edn. New York: Raven Press Ltd, 1994; 1291 325.
  • 12
    Sherlock S. Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System, 8th edn. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1989.
  • 13
    Alberti A & Bortolotti F. Hepatitis C. In: Bircher J, Benhamou JP, McIntyre N, Rizzetto M, Rodes J, eds. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999; 903 22.
  • 14
    Burgart LJ. Cholangitis in viral disease. Mayo Clin. Proc. 1998; 73: 479 82.
  • 15
    Itoh S & Nakajima M. Liver gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in viral liver disease. Digestion 1986; 33: 121 5.
  • 16
    Tong MJ, El-Farra NS, Reikes AR, Co RL. Clinical outcomes after transfusion-associated hepatitis C. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995; 332: 1463 6.
  • 17
    Lebovics E, Seif F, Kim D et al. Pruritus in chronic hepatitis C. Association with high serum bile acids, advanced pathology, and bile duct abnormalities. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1997; 42: 1094 9.
  • 18
    Chia SC, Bergasa NV, Kleiner DE, Goodman Z, Hoofnagle JH, DiBisceglie AM. Pruritus as a presenting symptom of chronic hepatitis C. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1998; 43: 2177 83.
  • 19
    Bonkovsky HL. Therapy of hepatitis C. Other options. Hepatology 1997; 26 (Suppl. 1): S143 51.
  • 20
    Kiso S, Kawata S, Imai Y et al. Efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy in chronic viral hepatitis C with high serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. J. Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 75 80.
  • 21
    Davies SE, Portmann BC, O’Grady JG et al. Hepatic histological findings after transplantation for chronic hepatitis B virus infection, including a unique pattern of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Hepatology 1991; 13: 150 7.
  • 22
    Benner KG, Lee RG, Keeffe EB, Lopez RR, Sasaki AW, Pinson CW. Fibrosing cytolytic liver failure secondary to recurrent hepatitis B after liver transplantation. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 1307 12.
  • 23
    Dickson RC, Caldwell SH, Ishitani MB et al. Clinical and histologic patterns of early graft failure due to recurrent hepatitis C in four patients after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1996; 61: 701 5.
  • 24
    Schluger LK, Sheiner PA, Thung SN et al. Severe recurrent cholestatic hepatitis C following orthotopic liver transplantation. Hepatology 1996; 23: 971 6.
  • 25
    Lim HL, Lau GK, Davis GL, Dolson DJ, Lau JY. Cholestatic hepatitis leading to hepatic failure in a patient with organ-transmitted hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: 248 51.
  • 26
    Zylerberg H, Carnot F, Manzer MF, Blancho G, Legendre C, Pol S. Hepatitis C virus-related fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis after renal transplantation. Transplantation 1997; 63: 158 60.
  • 27
    McIvor C, Morton J, Bryant A, Cooksley WG, Durrant S, Walker N. Fatal reactivation of precore mutant hepatitis B virus associated with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis after bone marrow transplantation. Ann. Intern. Med. 1994; 121: 274 5.
  • 28
    Fang JW, Wright TL, Lau JY. Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis in patient with HIV and hepatitis B. Lancet 1993; 342: 1175.
  • 29
    Lau JYN, Bain VG, Davies SE et al. High level expression of hepatitis B viral antigens in fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 956 62.
  • 30
    Doughty AL, Spencer JD, Cossart YE, McCaughan GW. Cholestatic hepatitis after liver transplantation is associated with persistently high serum hepatitis C virus RNA levels. Liver Transpl. Surg. 1998; 4: 15 21.
  • 31
    Chan TM, Wu PC, Li FK, Lai CL, Cheng IKP, Lai KN. Treatment of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis with lamivudine. Gastroenterology 1998; 115: 177 81.
  • 32
    Erlinger S. Drug-induced cholestasis. J. Hepatol. 1997; 26 (Suppl. 1): 1 4.
  • 33
    Farrell GC. Drug-induced hepatic injury. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 1997; 12 (Suppl. 1): S242 50.
  • 34
    French SW, Nash J, Shitabata P et al. Pathology of alcoholic liver disease. Semin. Liver Dis. 1993; 13: 154 69.
  • 35
    Lieber CS. Alcohol and the liver. 1994 Update. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: 1085 105.
  • 36
    Nissenbaum M, Chedid A, Mendenhall C, Gartside P. Prognostic significance of cholestatic alcoholic hepatitis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1990; 35: 891 6.
  • 37
    Cohen JA & Kaplan MM. The SGOT/SGPT ratio: An indicator of alcoholic liver disease. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1979; 24: 835 8.
  • 38
    Moseley RH. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests. Med. Clin. North Am. 1996; 80: 887 906.
  • 39
    Uchida T, Koa H, Quispe-Sjogren M, Peters RL. Alcoholic foamy degeneration: A pattern of acute alcoholic injury of the liver. Gastroenterology 1983; 84: 683 92.
  • 40
    Hoek JB, Taraschi TF, Rubin E. Functional implications of the interactions of ethanol with biologic membranes: Actions of ethanol on hormonal signal transduction systems. Semin. Liver Dis. 1988; 8: 36 46.
  • 41
    Tuma DJ & Sorrell MF. Effects of ethanol on protein trafficking in the liver. Semin. Liver Dis. 1988; 8: 69 80.
  • 42
    Morgan MY. Alcoholic liver disease: Natural history, diagnosis, clinical features, evaluation, management, prognosis and prevention. In: Bircher J, Benhamou JP, McIntyre N, Rizzetto M, Rodes J, eds. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology, 2nd edn. Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1999; 1185 238.
  • 43
    Cook CG. Liver involvement in systemic infection. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 1997; 12: 1239 47.
  • 44
    Kibbler CC & Sanchez-Tapias JM. Bacterial infection and the liver. In: Bircher J, Benhamou JP, McIntyre N, Rizzetto M, Rodes J, eds. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology, 2nd edm. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999; 889 1017.
  • 45
    Goldman IS, Farber BF, Brandborg LL. Bacterial and miscellaneous infections of the liver. In: Zakim D, Boyer TD, eds. Hepatology. A Textbook of Liver Disease, 3rd edn. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1996; 1231 42.
  • 46
    Takeuchi T, Yoshioka K, Hori A et al. Cytomegalic inclusion disease presenting acute intrahepatic cholestasis. Intern. Med. 1992; 31: 1376 80.
  • 47
    Zimmerman HJ, Fang M, Utili R, Seeff LB, Hoofnagle J. Jaundice due to bacterial infection. Gastroenterology 1979; 77: 362 74.
  • 48
    Escobedo MB, Barton LL, Marshall RE, Zarkowsky H. The frequency of jaundice in neonatal bacterial infections. Clin. Pediatr. 1974; 13: 656 7.
  • 49
    Vermillion SE, Gregg JA, Baggenstoss AH, Bartholomew LG. Jaundice associated with bacteremia. Arch. Intern. Med. 1969; 124: 611 18.
  • 50
    Te Boekhorst T, Urlus M, Doesburg W, Yap SH, Goris RJA. Etiologic factors of jaundice in severely ill patients. A retrospective study in patients admitted to an intensive care unit with severe trauma or with septic intra-abdominal complications following surgery and without evidence of bile duct obstruction. J. Hepatol. 1988; 7: 111 17.
  • 51
    Abrams GA, Trauner M, Nathanson MH. Nitric oxide and liver disease. Gastroenterologist 1995; 3: 220 33.
  • 52
    Sikuler E, Guetta V, Keynan A, Neumann L, Schlaeffer F. Abnormalities in bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in adult patients with bacteremia. A prospective study. Arch. Intern. Med. 1989; 149: 2246 8.
  • 53
    Franson TR, LaBrecque DR, Buggy BP, Harris GJ, Hoffmann RG. Serial bilirubin determinations as a prognostic marker of clinical infections. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1989; 297: 149 52.
  • 54
    Miller DJ, Keeton GR, Webber BL, Saunders SJ. Jaundice in severe bacterial infection. Gastroenterology 1976; 71: 94 7.
  • 55
    Quale JM, Mandel L, Bergasa NV, Straus EW. Clinical significance and pathogenesis of hyperbilirubinemia associated with Staphylococcus aureus septicemia. Am. J. Med. 1988; 85: 615 18.
  • 56
    Pirovino M, Meister F, Rubili E, Karlaganis G. Preserved cytosolic and synthetic liver function in jaundice of severe extrahepatic infection. Gastroenterology 1989; 96: 1589 95.
  • 57
    Gleeson D & Boyer JL. Intrahepatic cholestasis. In: Bircher J, Benhamou JP, McIntyre N, Rizzetto M, Rodes J, eds. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999; 1591 620.
  • 58
    Latham PS, Menkes E, Phillips MJ, Jeejeebhoy KN. Hyperalimentation-associated jaundice: An example of a serum factor inducing cholestasis in rats. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1985; 41: 61 5.
  • 59
    Nolan JP. Intestinal endotoxins as mediators of hepatic injury: An idea whose time has come again. Hepatology 1989; 10: 887 91.
  • 60
    Eamonn M, Quigley M, Marsh MN, Schaffer JL, Markin RS. Hepatobiliary complications of total parenteral nutrition. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 286 301.
  • 61
    McGill JM & Kwiatkowski AP. Cholestatic liver diseases in adults. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1998; 93: 684 91.
    Direct Link:
  • 62
    Spagnuolo MI, Iorio R, Vegnete A, Guarino A. Ursodeoxycholic acid for treatment of cholestasis in children on long-term parenteral nutrition: A pilot study. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 716 19.
  • 63
    Capron JP, Gineston JL, Herve MA, Braillon A. Metronidazole in prevention of cholestasis associated with total parenteral nutrition. Lancet 1983; i: 446 7.
  • 64
    Stauffer MH. Nephrogenic hepatosplenomegaly. Gastroenterology 1961; 40: 694 (Abstract).
  • 65
    Ramos CV & Taylor HB. Hepatic dysfunction associated with renal carcinoma. Cancer 1972; 29: 1287 92.
  • 66
    Strickland RC & Schenker S. The nephrogenic hepatic dysfunction syndrome: A review. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 1977; 22: 49 55.
  • 67
    Sharara AI, Panella TJ, Fitz G. Paraneoplastic hepatopathy associated with soft tissue sarcoma. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 330 2.
  • 68
    Watterson J & Priest JR. Jaundice as a paraneoplastic phenomenon in a T-cell lymphoma. Gastroenterology 1989; 97: 1319 22.
  • 69
    Warner AS & Whitcomb FF. Extrahepatic Hodgkin’s disease and cholestasis. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1994; 89: 940 1.
  • 70
    Birrer MJ & Young RC. Differential diagnosis of jaundice in lymphoma patients. Semin. Liver Dis. 1987; 7: 269 77.
  • 71
    Moody FG & Thompson DA. Postoperative jaundice. In: Schiff L, Schiff ER, eds. Schiff’s Diseases of the Liver, 6th edn. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1987; 1223 33.
  • 72
    Salmeron JM & Rodes J. Postoperative jaundice. In: Bircher J, Benhamou JP, McIntyre N, Rizzetto M, Rodes J, eds. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Hepatology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999; 2023 2027.
  • 73
    Simpson KJ, Lukacs NW, Colletti L, Strieter RM, Kunkel SL. Cytokines and the liver. J. Hepatol. 1997; 27: 1120 32.
  • 74
    Crawford JM. Cellular and molecular biology of the inflamed liver. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 1997; 13: 175 85.
  • 75
    Rowell DL, Eckmann L, Dwinell MB et al. Human hepatocytes express an array of proinflammatory cytokines after agonist stimulation or bacterial invasion. Am. J. Physiol. 1997; 273: G322 32.
  • 76
    Moseley RM. Sepsis-associated cholestasis. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 302 6.
  • 77
    Bird GLA, Sheron N, Goka AKJ, Alexander GJ, Williams RJ. Increased plasma tumor necrosis factor in severe alcoholic hepatitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 1990; 112: 917 20.
  • 78
    Fukui H, Brauner B, Bode JC, Bode C. Plasma endotoxin concentrations in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease: Re-evaluation with an improved chromogenic assay. J. Hepatol. 1991; 12: 162 9.
  • 79
    Guarner C, Soriano G, Thomas A et al. Increased serum nitrite and nitrate levels in patients with cirrhosis: Relationship to endotoxemia. Hepatology 1993; 18: 1139 43.
  • 80
    Bode C, Kugler W, Bode J. Endotoxemia in patients with alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis and in subjects with no evidence of chronic liver disease following acute alcohol excess. J. Hepatol. 1987; 4: 8 14.
  • 81
    Khoruts A, Stahnke L, McClain CJ, Logan G, Allen JI. Circulating tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 concentrations in chronic alcoholic patients. Hepatology 1991; 13: 267 76.
  • 82
    Bode C, Schaefer C, Bode JC. The role of gut-derived bacterial toxins (endotoxin) for the development of alcoholic liver disease in man. In: Blum HE, Bode C, Bode JC, Sartor RB, eds. Gut and the Liver. Lancaster: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998; 281 98.
  • 83
    Fukui H, Tsujita S, Matsumoto M et al. Endotoxaemia in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis: Epiphenomenon or of pathological relevance? In: Blum HE, Bode C, Bode JC, Sartor RB, eds. Gut and the Liver. Lancaster: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998; 251 62.
  • 84
    Rustgi VK, Jones DB, Dinarello CA, Hoofnagle JH. Lymphokines and bile secretion in the rat. Liver 1987; 7: 149 54.
  • 85
    Blaschke TF, Elin RJ, Berk PD, Song CS, Wolff SM. Effect of induced fever on sulfobromophthalein kinetics in man. Ann. Intern. Med. 1973; 78: 221 6.
  • 86
    Jones A, Selby PJ, Viner C, Hobbs S, Gore ME, McElwain TJ. Tumor necrosis factor, cholestatic jaundice, and chronic liver disease. Gut 1990; 31: 938 9.
  • 87
    Fisher B, Keenan AM, Garra BS et al. Interleukin-2 induces profound reversible cholestasis: A detailed analysis in treated cancer patients. J. Clin. Oncol. 1989; 7: 1852 62.
  • 88
    Roelofsen H, Van Der Veere C, Ottenhoff R, Schoemaker B, Jansen PLM, Oude Elferink RPJ. Decreased bilirubin transport in the perfused liver of endotoxemic rats. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 1075 84.
  • 89
    Bolder U, Ton-Nu HT, Schteingart C, Frick E, Hofmann AF. Hepatocyte transport of bile acids and organic anions in endotoxemic rats: Impaired uptake and secretion. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 214 25.
  • 90
    Trauner M, Nathanson MH, Rydberg SA et al. Endotoxin impairs biliary glutathione and HCO3 excretion and blocks the choleretic effect of nitric oxide in rat liver. Hepatology 1997; 25: 1184 91.
  • 91
    Roelofsen H, Schoemaker B, Bakker C, Ottenhof R, Jansen PLM, Oude Elferink RPJ. Impaired hepatocanalicular organic anion transport in endotoxemic rats. Am. J. Physiol. 1995; 269: G427 34.
  • 92
    Trauner M, Arrese M, Lee H, Boyer JL, Karpen SJ. Endotoxin downregulates rat hepatic ntcp gene expression via decreased activity of critical transcription factors. J. Clin. Invest. 1998; 101: 2092 100.
  • 93
    Moseley RH, Wang W, Takeda H et al. Effect of endotoxin on bile acid transport in rat liver: A potential model for sepsis-associated cholestasis. Am. J. Physiol. 1996; 271: G137 46.
  • 94
    Whiting JF, Green RM, Rosenbluth AB, Gollan JL. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha decreases hepatocyte bile salt uptake and mediates endotoxin-induced cholestasis. Hepatology 1995; 22: 1273 8.
  • 95
    Green RM, Whiting JF, Rosenbluth AB, Beier D, Gollan JL. Interleukin-6 inhibits hepatocyte taurocholate uptake and sodium-potassium-adenosinetriphosphatase activity. Am. J. Physiol. 1994; 267: G1094 100.
  • 96
    Dufour JF, Turner T, Arias IM. Nitric oxide blocks bile canalicular contraction by inhibiting inositol triphosphate-dependent calcium mobilization. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 841 9.
  • 97
    Burgstahler AD & Narhanson MH. Nitrous oxide (NO) modulates the apicolateral cytoskeleton of isolated rat hepatocyte couplets (IRHC) by a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent, cGMP- and Ca2+-independent mechanism. Am. J. Physiol. 1995; 269: G789 99.
  • 98
    Trauner M, Gartung C, Schlosser SF, Boyer JL. Role of nitric oxide in the transcriptional regulation of bile acid transporters in endotoxin-induced cholestasis. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: A1349 (Abstract).
  • 99
    Clements WDB, Erwin P, McCaigue MD, Halliday I, Barclay GR, Rowlands BJ. Conclusive evidence of endotoxaemia in biliary obstruction. Gut 1998; 42: 293 9.
  • 100
    Trauner M, Meier PJ, Boyer JL. Molecular regulation of hepatocellular transport systems in cholestasis. J. Hepatol. 1999; 31: 165 78.
  • 101
    Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Foguet M, Luebbert H, Meier PJ. Expression cloning and characterization of the hepatocyte Na+/bile acid cotransport system. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 1991; 88: 10 629 33.
  • 102
    Jacquemin E, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Wolkoff AW, Meier PJ. Expression cloning of a rat liver Na+-independent organic anion transporter. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 1994; 91: 133 7.
  • 103
    Noe B, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Meier PJ. Isolation of a multispecific organic anion and cardiac glycoside transporter from rat brain. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 1997; 94: 10 346 50.
  • 104
    Meier PJ. Molecular mechanisms of hepatic bile salt transport from sinusoidal blood into bile. Am. J. Physiol. 1995; 269: G801 12.
  • 105
    Meier PJ, Eckhardt U, Schroeder A, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B. Substrate specificity of sinusoidal bile acid and organic anion uptake systems in rat and human liver. Hepatology 1997; 26: 1667 77.
  • 106
    Gottesman MM & Pastan I. Biochemistry of multidrug resistance mediated by the multidrug transporter. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 1993; 62: 385 427.
  • 107
    Silverman JA & Thorgeirson SS. Regulation and function of the multidrug resistance genes in liver. In: Boyer JL, Ockner RK, eds. Progress in Liver Disease, Vol. 13. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1995; 101 123.
  • 108
    Smit JJM, Schinkel AH, Oude Elferink RPJ et al. Homozygous disruption of the murine mdr2 P-glycoprotein gene leads to complete absence of phospholipids from bile and to liver disease. Cell 1993; 75: 451 62.
  • 109
    Ruetz S & Gros P. Phosphatidylcholine translocase: A physiological role for the mdr2 gene. Cell 1994; 77: 1071 81.
  • 110
    Buechler M, Koenig J, Brom M et al. cDNA cloning of the hepatocyte canalicular isoform of the multidrug resistance protein, cMrp, reveals a novel conjugate export pump deficient in hyperbilirubinemic mutant rats. J. Biol. Chem. 1996; 271: 15 091 8.
  • 111
    Paulusma CC, Bosma PJ, Zaman GJR et al. Congenital jaundice in rats with a mutation in a multidrug resistance-associated protein gene. Science 1996; 271: 1126 8.
  • 112
    Ito K, Suzuki H, Hirohashi T, Kume K, Shimizu T, Sugiyama Y. Molecular cloning of canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter defective in EHBR. Am. J. Physiol. 1997; 272: G16 22.
  • 113
    Paulusma CC, Van Geer MA, Evers R et al. The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT/ MRP2) mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione. Biochem. J. 1999; 338: 393 401.
  • 114
    Gerloff T, Stieger B, Hagenbuch B et al. The sister of P-glycoprotein represents the canalicular bile salt export pump of mammalian liver. J. Biol. Chem. 1998; 273: 10 046 50.
  • 115
    Trauner M. Molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis: Possible functional correlations. Yale J. Biol. Med. 1997; 70: 365 78.
  • 116
    Green RM, Beier D, Gollan JL. Regulation of hepatocyte bile salt transporters by endotoxin and inflammatory cytokines in rodents. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 193 8.
  • 117
    Trauner M, Arrese M, Soroka CJ et al. The rat canalicular conjugate export pump (mrp2) is down-regulated in intrahepatic and obstructive cholestasis. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 255 64.
  • 118
    Vos TA, Hooiveld GJEJ, Koning H et al. Up-regulation of the multidrug resistance genes, mrp1 and mdr1b, and down-regulation of the organic anion transporter, mrp2, and the bile salt transporter, spgp, in endotoxemic rat liver. Hepatology 1998; 28: 1637 44.
  • 119
    Kubitz R, Wettstein M, Warskulat U, Haeussinger D. Regulation of the multidrug resistance protein 2 in the rat liver by lipopolysaccharide and dexamethasone. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 401 10.
  • 120
    Lee JM, Trauner M, Soroka CJ, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Boyer JL. The molecular expression of the bile salt export pump, sister of P-glycoprotein, is selectively preserved in cholestatic liver injury. Hepatology 1998; 28: 429A (Abstract).
  • 121
    Gartung C & Matern S. Molecular regulation of sinusoidal liver bile acid transporters during cholestasis. Yale J. Biol. Med. 1997; 70: 355 63.
  • 122
    Denson LA, McClure MH, Karpen SJ. Identification of a novel negative-acting cytokine response element in the rat liver sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter gene promoter. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: A1232 (Abstract).
  • 123
    Lund M, Tygstrup N, Ott P. Endotoxin pretreatment affects hepatic sinusoidal ICG uptake by reduction of mRNA for organic anion transporting protein (oatp). J. Hepatol. 1997; 26 (Suppl. 1): 71 (Abstract).
  • 124
    Wettstein M, Noe B, Haeussinger D. Metabolism of cysteinyl leukotrienes in the perfused rat liver: The influence of endotoxin pretreatment and the cellular hydration state. Hepatology 1995; 22: 135 40.
  • 125
    Jansen PLM & Mueller M. Early events in sepsis-associated cholestasis. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 486 8.
  • 126
    Kauffmann HM & Schrenk D. Sequence analysis and functional characterization of the 5′-flanking region of the rat multidrug resistance protein 2 (mrp2) gene. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998; 245: 325 31.
  • 127
    Demeule M, Jodoin J, Neaulieu E, Brossard M, Beliveau R. Dexamethasone modulation of multidrug transporters in normal tissues. FEBS Lett. 1999; 442: 208 14.
  • 128
    Yamane Y, Furuichi M, Van Song RNT, Mulcahy RT, Ishikawa T, Kuo MT. Expression of multridrug resistance protein/GS-X pump and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase genes is regulated by oxidative stress. J. Biol. Chem. 1998; 273: 31 075 85.
  • 129
    Stein U, Walther W, Laurencot CM, Scheffer GL, Scheper RJ, Shoemaker RH. Tumor necrosis factor-α and expression of the multidrug resistance-associated genes LRP and MRP. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 1997; 89: 807 13.
  • 130
    Keppler D & Kartenbeck J. The canalicular conjugate export pump encoded by the cmrp/cmoat gene. In: Boyer JL, Ockner RK, eds. Progress in Liver Disease, Vol. 14. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1996; 55 67.
  • 131
    Hirsch-Ernst KI, Ziemann C, Foth H, Kozian D, Schmitz-Salue C, Kahl GF. Induction of mdr1b mRNA and P-glycoprotein expression by tumor necrosis factor alpha in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. J. Cell Physiol. 1998; 176: 506 15.
  • 132
    Chapekar MS, Huggett AC, Cheng C. Dexamethasone prevents the growth inhibitory effects of recombinant tumor necrosis factor in a rat hepatoma cell line, Reuber-RC-3: An association with the changes in the messenger RNA levels for multidrug resistance gene. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1991; 181: 1524 31.
  • 133
    Zhou G & Kuo MT. NF-kappaB-mediated induction of mdr1b expression by insulin in rat hepatoma cells. J. Biol. Chem. 1997; 272: 15 174 83.
  • 134
    Buscher HP, Miltenberger C, MacNelly S, Gerok W. The histoautoradiographic localization of taurocholate in rat liver after bile duct ligation. Evidence for ongoing secretion and reabsorption processes. J. Hepatol. 1989; 8: 181 91.
  • 135
    Fallon MB, Nathanson MH, Mennone A, Saez JC, Burgstahler AD, Anderson JM. Altered expression and function of hepatocyte gap junctions after common bile duct ligation in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 1995; 268: C1186 94.
  • 136
    Lora L, Mazzon E, Martines D et al. Hepatocyte tight-junctional permeability is increased in rat experimental colitis. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 1347 54.
  • 137
    Strazzabosco M. New insights into cholangiocyte physiology. J. Hepatol. 1997; 27: 945 52.
  • 138
    Baiocchi L, LeSage G, Glaser S, Alpini G. Regulation of cholangiocyte bile secretion. J. Hepatol. 1999; 31: 179 91.
  • 139
    Trauner M, Meier PJ, Boyer JL. Molecular pathogenesis of cholestasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998; 339: 1217 27.
  • 140
    Trauner M, Fickert P, Stauber RE. Cholestasis in systemic infection. In: Boyer JL, Gilat T, Kotrlik J, Marecek Z, Paumgartner G, Spicak J, eds. Diseases of the Liver and Bile Ducts: New Aspects and Clinical Implications. Proceedings of the 107th International Falk Symposium. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999; 84 96.