The general indications for liver transplantation in hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and the issues surrounding treatment for HBV infection in the pre- and post-transplant periods, are discussed. In general, transplantation is reserved for patients with end-stage liver failure secondary to cirrhosis and a small population with acute liver failure. It is proposed that certain guidelines can be developed and that these should include any one of the following: a Child-Pugh score ≥ 9, diuretic resistant ascites, recurrent portal hypertensive bleeding, recurrent encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and the development of a small hepatocellular cancer (≤ 5 cm in diameter). Treatment for HBV infection now includes lamivudine therapy pre and post transplantation together with hepatitis B immunoglobulin. Such an approach has virtually abolished recurrence of HBV infection following liver transplantation.