Background: We tested for the presence of α-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA by using nested RT-PCR in the peripheral blood of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who had undergone curative surgery, and investigated the occurrence of intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic metastasis thereafter, to reveal the optimal timing of blood sampling for the prediction of metastatic recurrence.
Methods: Twenty-nine patients with HCC, who had been operated on were analyzed with RT-PCR at several points during the clinical course, and examined for metastatic recurrence for 3–28 months (mean = 18.7 months) after surgery.
Results: The presence of AFP mRNA before surgery was significantly correlated with the tumor size (P = 0.017). Metastatic recurrence was associated with the postoperative detection of AFP mRNA (P < 0.001), but not with the preoperative and/or perioperative detection. Furthermore, AFP mRNA was detected in some cases that showed low serum AFP levels at recurrence. The recurrence-free period after the detection of AFP mRNA varied from 1 to 12 months.
Conclusions: The postoperative detection of AFP mRNA is useful for the prediction of metastatic recurrence, and long-term follow up with this method should be conducted.