Cholangiocarcinoma: Recent progress. Part 2: Molecular pathology and treatment


Prof. Kunio Okuda, Department of Medicine, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan 260-8677. Email:


Part 2 of this review discusses DNA damage in biliary epithelial cells in the development of cholangiocarcinoma, alterations in cell kinetics of biliary epithelial cells, biliary epithelial mitoinhibition, and apoptosis that includes the role of Bcl-2, transforming growth factor-β, telomerase activities and deregulation of Ras and p53, cancer-associated antigens in cholangiocarcinoma, precancerous lesions, stroma formation and angiogenesis, cancer invasion, cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, and the mechanism of evasion from immune surveillance. These discussions are followed briefly by treatments such as photodynamic therapy, and surgical approaches comparing resection and liver transplantation.