• 1
    Harnett JD, Parfrey PS, Kennedy M, Zeldis JB, Steinman TI, Guttmann RD. the long-term outcome of hepatitis B infection in hemodialysis patients. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 1988; 11: 21013.
  • 2
    Guh JY, Lai YH, Yang CY et al. Impact of decreased serum transaminase levels on the evaluation of viral hepatitis in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 1995; 69: 45965.
  • 3
    Yasuda K, Okuda K, Endo N et al. Hypoaminotransferasemia in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis: Clinical and biochemical appraisal. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 1295300.
  • 4
    Harnett JD, Zeldis JB, Parfrey PS et al. Hepatitis B disease in dialysis and transplant patients. Transplantation 1987; 44: 36976.
  • 5
    Huang CC, Lai MK, Fong MT. Hepatitis B liver disease in cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 1990; 49: 5404.
  • 6
    Coughlin GP, van Deth AG, Disney APS, Hay J, Wargel AG. Liver disease and the antigen in HBsAg carriers with chronic renal failure. Gut 1980; 21: 11822.
  • 7
    Josselson J, Kyser BA, Weir MR, Sadler JH. Hepatitis B surface antigenemia in a chronic hemodialysis program: Lack of influence on morbidity and mortality. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 1987; 9: 45661.
  • 8
    Jha R, Kher V, Naik S, Elhense R, Gupta A, Sharma RK. Hepatitis B associated liver disease in dialysis patients: Role of vaccination. J. Nephrol. 1993; 6: 98103.
  • 9
    Tanaka S, Yoshiba N, Iino S et al. A common-source outbreak of fulminant hepatitis B in hemodialysis patients induced by precore mutant. Kidney Int. 1995; 48: 19728.
  • 10
    Degott C, Degos F, Jungers P et al. Relationship between liver histopathological changes and HBsAg in 111 patients treated by long-term hemodialysis. Liver 1983; 3: 37784.
  • 11
    Özdoǧan M, Özgür O, Gür G et al. Histopathological impacts of hepatitis virus infection in hemodialysis patients: Should liver biopsy be performed before renal transplantation Artificial Organs 1997; 21: 3558.
  • 12
    Parfrey PS, Forbes RDC, Hutchingson TA et al. the impact of renal transplantation on the course of hepatitis B liver disease. Transplantation 1985; 39: 61015.
  • 13
    Sengar DPS, Couture RA, Lazarovits AI, Jindal SL. Long-term patient and renal allograft survival in HBsAg infection: a recent update. Transplant. Proc. 1989; 21: 33589.
  • 14
    Aroldi A, Tarantino A, Montagnino G et al. Renal transplant recipients and chronic liver disease: Statistical evaluation of predisposing factors. Nephron 1992; 61: 2902.
  • 15
    Dhar JM, Al-Khader AA, Al-Sulaiman MH, Al-Hasani MK. the significance and implications of hepatitis B infection in renal transplant recipients. Transplant. Proc. 1991; 23: 17856.
  • 16
    Dusheiko G, Song E, Bowyer S et al. Natural history of hepatitis B virus infection in renal transplant recipients: a fifteen year follow-up. Hepatology 1983; 3: 3306.
  • 17
    Pol S, Debure A, Degott C et al. Chronic hepatitis in kidney allograft recipients. Lancet 1990; 335: 87880.
  • 18
    Favero MS, Alter MJ. the reemergence of hepatitis B virus infection in haemodialysis centers. Semin. Dial. 1996; 9: 3734.
  • 19
    Girndt M, Kohler H, Schiedhelm-Weick E, Schlaek J, Meyer Zum, Buschenfelde KH, Fleicher B. Production of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-10 in vitro correlates with the clinical immune defect in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1995; 47: 55965.
  • 20
    Perrillo RP, Schiff ER, Davis GL et al. A randomized, controlled trial of interferon alfa-2b alone and after prednisone withdrawal for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. N. Engl. J. Med. 1990; 323: 295301.
  • 21
    Duarte R, Huraib S, Said R et al. Interferon-alpha facilitates renal transplantation in hemodialysis patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 1995; 25: 405.
  • 22
    Rodrigues A, Morgado T, Areias J et al. Limited benefits of IFN-α therapy in renal graft candidates with chronic viral hepatitis B or C. Transplant Proc. 1997; 29: 77780.
  • 23
    Chang CN, Dkalski V, Zhou JH, Cheng YC. Biochemical pharmacology (+)- and (-)-2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine as antihepatitis B virus agents. J. Biol. Chem. 1992; 31: 22 41420.
  • 24
    Liaw YF, Leung WY, Chang TT et al. Effects of extended lamivudine therapy in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 17280.
  • 25
    Core working party for Asia-Pacific consensus on hepatitis B, C. Consensus statements on the prevention and management of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the Asia-Pacific region. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2000; 15: 82541.
  • 26
    Ling R, Mutimer D, Ahmed M et al. Selection of mutations in the hepatitis B virus polymerase during therapy of transplant recipients with lamivudine. Hepatology 1996; 3: 71417.
  • 27
    Dienstag JL, Schiff ER, Wright TL et al. Lamivudine as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis B in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999; 341: 125663.
  • 28
    Dienstag JL, Schiff ER, Mitchell M et al. Extended lamivudine retreatment for chronic hepatitis B: maintenance of viral suppression after discontinuation of therapy. Hepatology 1999; 30: 10827.
  • 29
    Lai CL, Chine RW, Leung NWY et al. A one year trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998; 339: 618.
  • 30
    Tassopoulos NC, Volpes R, Pastore G et al. Efficacy of lamivudine in patients with hepatitis B antigen-negative/hepatitis B virus DNA-positive (precore mutant) chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 1999; 29: 88996.
  • 31
    Balzarini J, Wedgwood O, Kruining J et al. Anti-HIV and anti-HBV activity and resistance profile of 2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine (3TC) and its arylphosphoramidate derivative CF 1109. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1996; 2: 3639.
  • 32
    Tipples GA, Ma MM, Fischer KP, Bain VG, Kneteman NM, Tyrell DL. Mutation in HBV RNA-dependent DNA polymerase confers resistance to lamivudine in vivo. Hepatology 1996; 24: 71417.
  • 33
    Allen MI, Deslauriers M, Andrews CW et al. Identification and characterization of mutations in hepatitis B virus resistant to lamivudine. Hepatology 1998; 27: 16707.
  • 34
    Niesters HG, Honkoop P, Haagsma EB, de Man RA, Schalm SW, Osterhaus AD. Identification of more than one mutation in the hepatitis B virus polymerase gene arising during prolonged lamivudine treatment. J. Infect. Dis. 1998; 177: 13825.
  • 35
    Seigneres B, Pichoud C, Ahmed SS, Hantz O, Trepo C, Zoulim F. Evolution of hepatitis B virus polymerase gene sequence during famciclovir therapy for chronic hepatitis B. J. Infect. Dis. 2000; 181: 122133.
  • 36
    Melegari M, Scaglioni PP, Wands JR. Hepatitis B virus mutants associated with 3TC and famciclovir administration are replication defective. Hepatology 1998; 27: 62833.
  • 37
    Ono-Nita SK, Kato N, Shiratori Y et al. YMDD motif in hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase influences on replication and lamivudine resistance: a study by in vitro full-length viral DNA transfection. Hepatology 1999; 29: 93945.
  • 38
    Peter MG, Singer G, Howard T et al. Fulminant hepatic failure resulting from lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus in a renal transplant recipient: durable response after orthotopic liver transplantation on adefovir dipivoxil and hepatitis B immune globulin. Transplantation 1999; 68: 191214.
  • 39
    Pereira BJ, Levey AS. Hepatitis C virus infection in dialysis and renal transplantation. Kidney Int. 1997; 51: 98199.
  • 40
    Natov SN, Pereira BJ. Hepatitis C in dialysis patients. Adv. Ren. Replace. Ther. 1996; 3: 27583.
  • 41
    Stehman-Breen CO, Emerson S, Gretch D, Johnson RJ. Risk of death among chronic dialysis patients infected with hepatitis C virus. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 1998; 32: 62934.
  • 42
    Knoll GA, Tankersley MR, Lee JY, Julian BA, Curtis JJ. the impact of renal transplantation on survival in hepatitis C positive end-stage renal disease patients. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 1997; 29: 60814.
  • 43
    Pereira BJ, Natov SN, Bouthot BA et al. Effects of hepatitis C infection and renal transplantation on survival in end-stage renal disease. the New England Organ Bank Hepatitis C Study Group. Kidney Int. 1998; 53: 137481.
  • 44
    Okuda K, Hayashi H, Kobayashi S, Irie Y. Mode of hepatitis C infection not associated with blood transfusion among chronic hemodialysis patients. J. Hepatol. 1995; 23: 2831.
  • 45
    Forns X, Fern'andez LP, Pons M et al. Incidence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection in a haemodialysis unit. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1997; 12: 73640.
  • 46
    Fabrizi F, Lunghi G, Guarnori I et al. Incidence of serocon-versino for hepatitis C virus in chronic haemodialysis patients: a prospective study. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1994; 9: 161115.
  • 47
    dos Santos JP, Loureiro A, Cendoroglo Neto M, Pereira BJ. Impact of dialysis room and reuse strategies on the incidence of hepatitis C virus infection in haemodialysis units. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1996; 11: 201722.
  • 48
    Jadoul M, Cornu C, van Ypersele de Strihou C, for the UCL Collaborative Group. Incidence and risk factors for hepatitis C seroconversion in hemodialysis: a prospective study. Kidney Int. 1993; 44: 13226.
  • 49
    Jadoul M, Cornu C, Van Ypersele de Strihou C and the UCL, Collaborative Group. Universal precautions prevent hepatitis C virus transmission: a 54 month follow-up of the Belgian multi-center study. Kidney Int. 1998; 53: 10225.
  • 50
    Hoofnagle JH. Hepatitis C the clinical spectrum of disease. Hepatology 1997; 26 (Suppl. 1): S1520.
  • 51
    Seeff LB, Buskell-Bales Z, Wright EC et al. Long-term mortality after transfusions-associated nonA-nonB hepatitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 1992; 327: 190611.
  • 52
    Vaquer P, Canet R, Llompart A, Riera J, Obrador A, Gaya J. Histological evolution of chronic hepatitis C. Factors related to progression. Liver 1994; 14: 2659.
  • 53
    Di Bisceglie AM Hepatitis C and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 1997; 26 (Suppl. 1): S348.
  • 54
    Tong MJ, El-Farra NS, Reikes AR, Co RL. Clinical outcomes after transfusion associated hepatitis C. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995; 332: 14636.
  • 55
    Barril G. Hepatitis C virus-induced liver disease in dialysis patients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2000; 15 (Suppl. 8): 425.
  • 56
    Romeo R, Pol S, Berthelot P, Brechot C. Eradication of hepatitis C virus RNA after alpha-interferon therapy. Ann. Intern. Med. 1994; 121: 2767.
  • 57
    Lau JYN, Davis G, Prescott L et al. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes determined by line probe assay in patients with chronic hepatitis C seen in tertiary referral centers in the United States. Ann. Intern. Med. 1996; 124: 86876.
  • 58
    Nousbaum J, Pol S, Nalpas B, Landais P, Berthelot P, Brechot C. Hepatitis C virus type (II) infection in France and Italy. Ann. Intern. Med. 1995; 122: 1617.
  • 59
    Soni P, Dusheiko G, Dhillon A, Harrison T, Fine L. Genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus: implications for pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. Lancet 1995; 345: 5626.
  • 60
    Garson J, Brillanti S, Whitby K et al. Analysis of clinical and virological factors associated with response to alpha interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C. J. Med. Virol. 1995; 45: 34853.
  • 61
    Toyoda H, Nakano S, Kumada T et al. Comparison of serum hepatitis C virus RNA concentration by branched DNA probe assay with competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as a predictor of response to interferon alpha therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients. J. Med. Virol. 1996; 48: 3549.
  • 62
    Lau J, Davis G, Kniffen J et al. Significance of serum hepatitis C virus RNA levels in chronic hepatitis C. Lancet 1993; 341: 1504.
  • 63
    Kuzushita N, Hayashi N, Kazuhiro K et al. Increased frequency of HLA DR13 in hepatitis C virus carries with persistently normal ALT values. J. Med. Virol. 1996; 48: 17.
  • 64
    Enomoto N, Sakuma I, Asahina Y et al. Mutations in the non-structural protein 5A gene and response to interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus 1b infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 1996; 334: 7781.
  • 65
    Pol S, Thiers V, Carnot F et al. Efficacy and tolerance of α-2b interferon therapy on HCV infection of hemodialyzed patients. Kidney Int. 1995; 7: 141218.
  • 66
    Izopet J, Rostaing L, Moussion F et al. High rate of hepatitis C virus clearance in hemodialysis patients after interferon-alpha therapy. J. Infect. Dis. 1997; 176: 161417.
  • 67
    Rostaing L, Chatelut E, Payen J-L et al. Pharmacokinetics of αIFN-2b in chronic hepatitis C virus patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis or with normal renal function: clinical implications. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1998; 9: 23448.
  • 68
    Lindsay KL, El-Shahawy M, Milstein S et al. HCV-RNA levels are lowered during hemodialysis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1994; 20: A239.
  • 69
    Buisson C, Degos F, Daniel F et al. Pharmacokinetics of interferon alpha-2b in haemodialysis (Abstract). Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1994; 9: 9778.
  • 70
    Degos F, Pol S, Chaix ML et al. the tolerance and efficacy of interferon-α in haemodialysis patients with HCV infection: a multicentre, prospective study. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2000; 16: 101723.
  • 71
    Pol S. Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in dialysis patients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2000; 15 (Suppl. 8): 468.
  • 72
    Jie K, Rensma PL, Veen SV, Bosch FH, Valentin RM. Safety of interferon and ribavirin therapy in haemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C: results of a pilot study. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2001; 16: 1935.
  • 73
    Forns X, Fernandez-Liama P, Costa J et al. Hepatitis G virus infection in a hemodialysis unit: prevalence and clinical implications. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1997; 12: 95660.
  • 74
    Sampietro M, Badalamenti S, Graziani G et al. Hepatitis G virus infection in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1997; 51: 34852.
  • 75
    Gartner B, Kaul H, Neutzling A, Sauter M, Mueller-Lantzsch N, Kohler H. High prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) infections in dialysis staff. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1999; 14: 4068.
  • 76
    Hassen H, Bastani B. Hepatitis G virus infection among hemodialysis patients: True infection or innocent bystander. Seminars Dialysis 2000; 13: 10811.
  • 77
    Huang CC, Lin CL, Lien JM. High prevalence of GB virus-C infection in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1999; 14: 18023.
  • 78
    Fabrizi F, Martin P. GBV-C/HGV infection in end-stage renal disease. J. Nephrol. 1999; 12: 1319.
  • 79
    Alter HJ. the cloning and clinical implications of HGV and HGBV-C. N. Engl. J. Med. 1996; 334: 15367.
  • 80
    Alter MJ, Gallagher M, Morris T et al. Acute non-A-E hepatitis in the United States and the role of hepatitis G virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 1997; 336: 7416.
  • 81
    DiBisceglie AM. Hepatitis G virus infection: a work in progress. Ann. Intern. Med. 1996; 125: 7723.
  • 82
    Bralet MP, Roudot-thoraval F, Pawlotsky JM et al. Histopathologic impact of GB virus C infection of chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 1997; 25: 12715.
  • 83
    Nishizawa T, Okamoto H, Konishi K, Yoshizawa H, Miyakawa Y, Mayumi M. A novel DNA virus (TTV) associated with elevated transaminase levels in posttransfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1997; 241: 927.
  • 84
    Simmonds P, Davidson F, Lycett C et al. Detection of a novel DNA virus (TTV) in blood donors and blood products. Lancet 1998; 352: 1914.
  • 85
    Okamoto H, Akahane Y, Ukita M et al. Fecal excretion of non-enveloped DNA virus (TTV) associated with posttransfusion. non-A-G hepatitis. J. Med. Virol. 1998; 56: 12832.
  • 86
    Inami T, Konomi N, Arakawa Y, Abe K. High prevalence of TT virus in human saliva and semen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2000; 38: 24078.
  • 87
    Hada T, Cheng J, Fukui K, Ohno M, Ohkawa T, Yokoyama Y. Detection of TTV DNA in sera of patients with chronic liver diseases and interferon efficiency. Hepatology 1998; 28: A815 ((Abstract).
  • 88
    Biagini P, Gallian P, Cantaloube JF, De Micco P, Lamballerie X. Presence of TT virus in French blood donors and intravenous drug users. J. Hepatol. 1998; 29: 6845.
  • 89
    Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, Kato N et al. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a novel DNA virus (TTV) associated with post-transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology. Hepatol. Res. 1998; 10: 116.
  • 90
    Simmonds P, Davidson F, Lycett C et al. Detection of a novel DNA virus (TT virus) in blood donors and blood products. Lancet 1998; 352: 1915.
  • 91
    Gallian P, Berland Y, Lomer M et al. TT virus infection in French hemodialysis patients: study of prevalence and risk factors. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1999; 37: 253842.
  • 92
    Forns X, Hegerich P, Darnell A et al. High prevalence of TT virus (TTV) infection in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: freqent mixed infectons with different genotypes and lack of evidence of associated liver disease. J. Med. Virol. 1999; 59: 31317.
  • 93
    Utsunomiya S, Yoshioka K, Wakita T et al. TT virus infection in hemodialysis patients. Am. J. Gastroenteral. 1999; 94: 356770.
    Direct Link: