SUMMARY: The decline of residual renal function (RRF) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients was analysed and assessed, and risk factors affecting its decline were identified. Residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated from averaging the urea and creatinine clearance by 24-h urine collection, and peritoneal solute removal was evaluated by creatinine clearance calculated from 24-h effluent collection. Both GFR and peritoneal solute removal were chronologically examined in 34 PD patients from the time of initiation, and risk factors associated with rapid GFR decline were investigated. The RRF contributed to 43.1 ± 17.6% of total (peritoneal and renal) weekly creatinine clearance at 1 month after initiation of PD. Residual GFR, however, declined continuously with time (−0.19 ± 0.14 mL/min per month), and the reduction rate was high with a higher GFR, higher normalized dietary protein intake, higher urine volume and higher urine protein excretion at the initiation of PD. Other factors related to the rapid decline of GFR were: being older than 60 years of age, automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) rather than continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, mean blood pressure higher than 110 mmHg, and serum human atrial natriuretic peptide level higher being than 60 pg/dL. These data suggest that while RRF plays an important role in the removal of uraemic solute in PD patients, they show a significant decrease over 2 years. The factors related to the rapid decline of GFR corresponded to older age, modality of PD (APD), higher GFR and higher amount of urine protein at initiation, higher dietary protein intake, and inadequate control of hypertension and body fluid volume.