In a previous article, recent reports by Japanese researchers on non-Alzheimer-type degenerative dementias were reviewed. In the present article, recent Japanese reports on Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) are reviewed. Alzheimer-type dementia has received great attention and has been studied from various viewpoints in Japan as well as in Europe and the Americas. In Japan, although it was believed that vascular dementia was the most frequent dementia in the elderly, ATD has recently been shown to be the most predominant type of dementia. Such a great number of papers on ATD have been reported in Japan that mainly the clinical, neuropathological, biochemical and molecular biological research papers alone are reviewed here.