To clarify disturbances in sleep regulation in patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), we studied three patients with DSPS and seven healthy controls. Sleep propensity and melatonin rhythms after 24-h sleep deprivation were investigated under dim light condition by using the ultra-short sleep–wake schedule. The sleep propensity curves displayed clear differences between DSPS patients and the controls. During the subjective day when melatonin was not produced, recovery sleep after the sleep deprivation did not occur in DSPS patients, while recovery sleep occurred during the subjective day in controls. This suggests that DSPS may involve problems related to the homeostatic regulation of sleep after sleep deprivation.