• 1
    Tellenbach H. Melancholie. Springer, Berlin, 1976 (in German).
  • 2
    Hirasawa H. Clinical Features and the Prognosis of Mild Depression. Igakushoin, Tokyo, 1966 (in Japanese).
  • 3
    Kasahara Y. The premorbid personality of depression. In: Kasahara Y (ed.). Psychopathology of Manic-Depressive Illness, Vol. 1. Kobundo, Tokyo, 1976; 1 29 (in Japanese).
  • 4
    Sato T. Situations and the personality predisposing affective disorders. In: Kasahara Y (ed.). Affective Disorder: The Basic and the Clinical Aspects. Asakura-Shoten, Tokyo, 1997; 142 157 (in Japanese).
  • 5
    Sato T, Sakado K, Uehara T, Sato S. Age distribution of the melancholic type of personality in outpatients with major depression: A comparison with a population without a history of depression. Psychopathology 1994; 27: 43 48.
  • 6
    Sato T, Sakado K, Sato S. Importance of the melancholic type of personality for research into the premorbid personality of depression. In: Interpersonal Factors in the Origin and Course of Affective Disorders. Gaskel, London, 1996; 48 64.
  • 7
    Salzman L. The Obsessive Personality. Science House, New York, 1968.
  • 8
    Von Zerssen D & Pössl J. The premorbid personality of patients with different subtypes of an affective illness: Statistical analysis of blind assignment of case history data to clinical diagnoses. J. Affect. Disord 1990; 18: 39 50.
  • 9
    Von Zerssen D, Tauscher R, Pössl J. The relationship of premorbid personality to subtypes of an affective illness: A replication study by means of an operationalized procedure for the diagnosis of personality structures. J. Affect. Disord 1994; 32: 61 72.
  • 10
    Von Zerssen D, Asukai N, Tsuda H, Ono Y, Kizaki Y, Cho Y. Personality traits of Japanese patients in remission from an episode of primary unipolar depression. J. Affect. Disord 1997; 44: 145 152.
  • 11
    Sauer H, Richter P, Czernik A et al. Personality differences between patients with major depression and bipolar disorder: the impact of minor symptoms on self-rating of personality. J. Affect. Disord 1997; 42: 169 177.
  • 12
    Hecht H, Van Calker D, Spraul G et al. Premorbid personality in patients with uni- and bipolar affective disorders and controls: Assessment by the Biological Personality Interview (BPI). Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci 1997; 247: 23 30.
  • 13
    Sakado K, Sato T, Uehara T, Sato S, Sakado M, Kumagai K. Evaluating the diagnostic specificity of Munich personality test dimensions in major depression. J. Affect. Disord 1997; 43: 187 194.
  • 14
    Matussek P & Feil WB. Personality attributes of depressive patients: Results of group comparisons. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1983; 40: 783 789.
  • 15
    Furukawa T, Nakanishi M, Hamanaka T. Typus melancholicus is not the premorbid personality trait of the unipolar (endogenous) depression. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci 1997; 51: 197 202.
  • 16
    Maier W, Lichtemann DJ, Minges J, Heun R. Personality trait in subjects at risk for unipolar major depression: A family study perspective. J. Affect. Disord 1992; 24: 153 164.
  • 17
    Maier W, Minges J, Lichtemann DJ, Heun R. Personality disorders and personality variations in relatives of patients with bipolar affective disorders. J. Affect. Disord 1995; 53: 173 181.
  • 18
    Lauer CJ, Bronisch T, Kainz M, Schreiber W, Holsboer F, Krieg J-C. Pre-morbid psychometric profile of subjects at high familial risk for affective disorder. Psychol. Med 1997; 27: 355 362.
  • 19
    Reich JH & Noyes R. A comparison of DSM-III personality disorders in acutely ill panic and depressed patients. J. Anxiety Disord 1987; 1: 123 128.
  • 20
    Shea M-T, Glass DR, Pilkonis PA, Watkins J, Docherty JP. Frequency and implications of personality disorders in a sample of depressed outpatients. J. Pers. Disord 1987; 1: 27 42.
  • 21
    Pilkonis PA & Frank E. Personality pathology in recurrent depression: Nature, prevalence, and relationship to treatment response. Am. J. Psychiatry 1988; 145: 435 441.
  • 22
    Alanes R & Torgersen S. The relationship between DSM-III symptom disorders (Axis I) and personality disorders (Axis II) in an outpatients population. Acta Psychiatr. Scand 1988; 78: 485 492.
  • 23
    Alanes R & Torgersen S. DSM-III personality disorders among patients with major depression anxiety disorders, and mixed conditions. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis 1990; 178: 693 698.
  • 24
    Sanderson WC, Wetzler S, Beck AT, Betz F. Prevalence of personality disorders in patients with major depression and dysthymia. Psychiatry Res 1992; 42: 93 99.
  • 25
    Sato T, Sakado K, Sato S. DSM-III-R Personality disorders in outpatients with non-bipolar depression: The frequency in a sample of Japanese and the relationship to the 4-month outcome under adequate antidepressant therapy. Eur. Arch. Psychiatr. Clin. Neurosci 1993; 242: 273 279.
  • 26
    Frank E, Kupfer D, Jacob M, Jarett D. Personality features and response to acute treatment in recurrent depression. J. Pers. Disord 1987; 1: 14 26.
  • 27
    Stuart S, Simons AD, Thase ME, Pilkonis PA. Are personality assessment valid in acute major depression? J. Affect. Disord 1992; 24: 281 290.
  • 28
    Shea M-T, Pilkonis PA, Beckham E et al. Personality disorder and treatment outcome in the NIMH treatment of depression collaborative research program. Am. J. Psychiatry 1990; 147: 711 718.
  • 29
    Peselow ED, Fieve RR, Difiglia C. Personality traits and response to desipramine. J. Affect. Disord 1992; 24: 209 216.
  • 30
    Sato T, Sakado K, Sato K, Morikawa T. Cluster C personality disorder: A maker of worse treatment outcome of major depression? Psychiatry Res 1994; 53: 153 159.
  • 31
    Sato T, Sakado K, Sato S. Is there any specific personality disorder or personality disorder cluster that worsens the short term treatment outcome of major depressions? Acta Psychiatr. Scand 1993; 88: 342 348.
  • 32
    Zimmerman M, Coryell W, Pfohl B, Corethal C, Stangel D. ECT response in depressed patients with and without a DSM-III personality disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 1986; 143: 1030 1032.
  • 33
    Akiskal HS, Maser JD, Zeller PJ et al. Switching from ‘unipolar’ to ‘bipolar’ II an 11-year prospective study of clinical and temperamental predictors in 559 patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1995; 52: 114 123.
  • 34
    Sato T. Affective disorders and Personality disorders. In: Fukushima A (ed.). Personality Disorders. Kongo-Shuppan, Tokyo, 1995: 194 213 (in Japanese).
  • 35
    Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM, Pryzybeck TR. A psychological model of temperament and character. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1993; 50: 975 990.
  • 36
    Kijima N, Saito R, Takeuchi M et al. Cloninger’s seven factor model of personality and Japanese version of Temperament and Character Inventory. Arch. Psychiatr. Diag. Clin. Eval 1996; 7: 379 399 (in Japanese).
  • 37
    Cloninger CR. A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variance: A proposal. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1987; 44: 573 588.
  • 38
    Von Zerssen D. Objectierende Untersuchungen zur prämorbiden Persönlichkeit endogen Depressiver. In: Hippius H (ed.). Das Depressive Syndrom. Urban & Schwarzenwald, Munich, 1969; 184 205 (in German).
  • 39
    Kasahara Y. Depressive patients in general practice. Jpn. J. Psychosom. Med 1984; 24: 6 11 (in Japanese).
  • 40
    Sato T, Sakado K, Kobayashi S. The measurement of typus melancholicus using questionnaires; reliability and validity of Zerssen’s F-list. Seishin-Igaku (Clin. Psychiatry) 1992; 34: 139 146 (in Japanese).
  • 41
    Von Zerssen D, Pfister H, Koeller DM. The Munich Personality Test (MPT): A short questionnaire for self-rating and relatives’ rating personality traits: formal properties and clinical potential. Eur. Arch. Psychiatr. Neurol. Sci 1988; 238: 73 93.
  • 42
    Sakado K, Sato T, Uehara T, Sato S. The Japanese version of the Munich Personality Test (MPT): Its reliability and validity. Arch. Psychiatr. Diag. Clin. Eval 1996; 7: 123 132 (in Japanese).
  • 43
    Svrakic DM, Whitehead C, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR. Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the seven factor model of Temperament and Character. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1993; 50: 991 999.
  • 44
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn revised. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 1987.
  • 45
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 1994.
  • 46
    Hamilton M. A rating scale for depression. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 1960; 23: 56 62.
  • 47
    Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1961; 4: 561 571.
  • 48
    Bejerot S, Schlette P, Ekselius L, Adolfsson P, Von Knorring L. Personality disorders and relationship to personality dimensions measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Acta. Psychiatr. Scand 1998; 98: 243 246.
  • 49
    Sato T, Sakado K, Uehara T, Narita T, Hirano S. Personality disorder comorbidity in early-onset versus late-onset major depression in Japan. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis 1999; 187: 237 242.
  • 50
    Sato T, Hirano S, Narita T. Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions as a predictor of response to antidepressant treatment in major depression. J. Affect. Disord. 1999 (in press).
  • 51
    Sato T. The premorbid personality of depression: typus melancholicus and DSM-III-R personality disorders. Jpn. J. Soc. Psychiatry 1991; 14: 201 207 (in Japanese).
  • 52
    Sato T. Psychopathology and life history of the withdrawal depression and the apathetic syndrome: comparisons with the endogenous unipolar depression. Jpn. J. Clin. Psychopathology 1986; 7: 147 160 (in Japanese).
  • 53
    Hirose T. On withdrawal depression (Tohigata Yokuutsu). In: Miyamoto T (ed.). Psychopathology of Manic-Depressive Illness, Vol. 2. Koubun-Dou, Tokyo, 1977; 61 86 (in Japanese).
  • 54
    Duggan CF, Sham P, Lee AS, Murray RM. Does recurrent depression lead to a change in neuroticism? Psychol. Med 1991; 21: 985 990.
  • 55
    Clayton PJ, Ernst C, Angst J. Premorbid personality traits of men who develop unipolar or bipolar disorders. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci 1994; 243: 340 346.
  • 56
    Shea MT, Leon AC, Mueller TI, Solomon DA, Warshaw MG, Keller MB. Does major depression result in lasting personality change? Am. J. Psychiatry 1996; 153: 1404 1410.