• age at the onset of illness;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • medial temporal lobe structures;
  • schizophrenia;
  • Sylvian fissure

Abstract Volumes of the medial temporal lobe structures (i.e. the amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus), Sylvian fissure, and inferior horn of the lateral ventricle relative to the cerebral hemisphere were measured in 24 patients with schizophrenia and 23 normal controls using magnetic resonance imaging. The patients had significantly larger Sylvian fissures and inferior horns bilaterally than the controls. In the patients the right Sylvian fissure size showed a significant positive correlation with the duration of illness. Moreover, earlier onset of illness was significantly correlated with decreased volume of the left medial temporal lobe structures. These results replicate previous finding of inferior horn enlargement and suggest the significance of the Sylvian fissure and the medial temporal lobe structures in pathophysiology of schizophrenia.