The Body Attitude Test (BAT) was developed by Probst et al. (1995) for female patients with eating disorders (ED). This test measures the subjective body experience and attitudes toward one's body. The present authors have developed the Japanese version of the BAT and the purpose of the present paper was to investigate its reliability and validity in control (CON, n = 599) and ED patients (n = 46). The ED patients consisted of 21 anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R) patients and 25 bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. Internal consistency was determined with Cronbach's α coefficient in CON. Factor analysis was conducted on BAT ratings given by CON. Factor analysis indicated that BAT was composed of two factors. These were body dissatisfaction (factor 1) and lack of familiarity with one's body (factor 2). A comparison was made among AN-R, BN, and CON. Bulimia nervosa had a significantly higher score than the other two groups. The BAT scores of ED patients correlated significantly with the Self -rating Depression Scale, and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory. These results show that ED patients have negative feelings toward their own body, similar to the findings in the original report. On factor analysis, however, it was not possible to distinguish between negative appreciation of body size and general body dissatisfaction as described in the original report. The authors also examine influences on this difference from a cross-cultural view point.