Predictors of first-onset major depressive episodes among white-collar workers

Authors

  • Madoka Tokuyama , MD, PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Psychiatry and Behavioral Proteomics, Department of Post-Genomics and Diseases, Course of Advanced Medicine and
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Kazuhisa Nakao , MD, PhD,

    1. Division of Psychiatry and Behavioral Proteomics, Department of Post-Genomics and Diseases, Course of Advanced Medicine and
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Masako Seto , MD,

    1. Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Course of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Akira Watanabe , MD,

    1. Division of Psychiatry and Behavioral Proteomics, Department of Post-Genomics and Diseases, Course of Advanced Medicine and
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Masatoshi Takeda , MD, PhD

    1. Division of Psychiatry and Behavioral Proteomics, Department of Post-Genomics and Diseases, Course of Advanced Medicine and
    Search for more papers by this author

address: Dr Madoka Tokuyama, Division of Psychiatry and Behavioral Proteomics, Department of Post-Genomics and Diseases, Course of Advanced Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, D3, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
Email: imadoka@psy.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Major depression is a multifactorial disorder. Previous studies have mainly evaluated work stress to determine the risk factors for depression among workers. The present study aimed to determine factors predictive of the first depressive episode 1 year later among white-collar workers, and to examine whether work ‘stress’ is associated with an elevated risk of depression. A 5 year open-cohort study was carried out in a Japanese company. The odds ratios (OR) of the development of depression 1 year later were calculated. Ninety-eight first-onset cases were compared with 1267 never-ill cases. Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression indicated that the first onset of depression was associated with a past history of panic attack (OR: 5.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64–16.10), neuroticism (OR: 3.59; 95%CI: 2.06–6.26), perceived overprotection (OR: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.66–4.55), poor support (OR: 2.55; 95%CI: 1.58–4.10), and low care (OR: 2.23; 95%CI: 1.23–4.04). First-onset cases were more likely to have had objective work events (OR: 1.50; 95%CI: 1.18–1.90) but they did not differ from never-ill cases in subjective job stress. The development of major depression in white-collar workers is associated with multiple factors, as is depression in the community.

Ancillary