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Gene expression of gastric type mucin (MUC5AC) in pancreatic tumors: Its relationship with the biological behavior of the tumor

Authors


Suguru Yonezawa MD, Second Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8520, Japan. Email: <syoneza@med4.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp>

Abstract

Previously it has been found that the MUC2 gene for intestinal type secretory mucin is highly expressed in intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (IPMT), which are characterized by non-invasive growth and a favorable outcome. In contrast, MUC2 mRNA is rarely expressed in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), which have poor outcomes. The gastric type secretory mucin, MUC5AC, is strongly expressed in the surface mucous cells of gastric mucosa. As both MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins share the characteristics of forming highly viscous gels, it is expected that not only MUC2 mucin expression but also MUC5AC mucin expression may be associated with a favorable prognosis in patients with pancreatic tumors. MUC5AC mucin gene expression was examined in 24 cases of IPMT and 38 cases of IDC by in situ hybridization using a digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide. The results were compared with MUC2 mucin gene expression. Neither MUC5AC mRNA nor MUC2 mRNA was detected in normal pancreatic tissues. MUC5AC mRNA was expressed in 20 of 24 cases of IPMT (83%) and in five of 38 cases of IDC (13%). In contrast, MUC2 mRNA was expressed in 14 of 24 cases of IPMT (58%) and in none of the 38 cases of IDC (0%). The expression rates of MUC5AC mRNA and MUC2 mRNA in IPMT were significantly higher than those in IDC (P < 0.001, respectively). Intraductal papillary mucinous tumors are characterized by three histological types: (i) villous dark cell type; (ii) papillary clear cell type; and (iii) compact cell type. The villous dark cell type generally expressed both MUC5AC+ and MUC2+ genes. Alternatively, the papillary clear cell type and the compact cell type usually showed MUC5AC+ and MUC2 expression. Patients with MUC5AC mRNA expression had a significantly better survival prognosis than those with no MUC5AC mRNA expression (P < 0.005). In conclusion, MUC5AC gene expression occurs in a majority of IPMT cases, even in those with no MUC2 production. MUC5AC expression can be correlated with tumors that demonstrate an expansive growth pattern and lower levels of invasion and metastasis.

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