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Keywords:

  • clonality;
  • metastasis;
  • multiple pulmonary leiomyomatous hamartoma;
  • ossification;
  • parosteal osteosarcoma

A 31-year-old woman presented with multiple pulmonary leiomyomatous hamartoma (MPLH) with secondary ossification. She had a past history of parosteal osteosarcoma. The pulmonary lesions were composed of spindle-shaped cells arranged in interlacing fascicles, among which glands or duct-like spaces were scattered. As some lesions contained bony tissues, it was unclear whether or not the pulmonary lesions were metastases of parosteal osteosarcoma. However, the majority of spindle-shaped cells were positive for α-smooth muscle actin, including cells proliferating around the bony tissues. Clonality analysis using a target of human androgen receptor (HUMARA) gene disclosed that the pulmonary nodules were polyclonal. These findings do not indicate that the lesions were metastatic. We would like to emphasize that MPLH can show osseous metaplasia.