• energy output;
  • exercise;
  • Japanese;
  • protein supplement;
  • resting metabolic rate;
  • weight reduction

We have reported that ingesting a meal immediately after exercise increased skeletal muscle accretion and less adipose tissue accumulation in rats employed in a 10 week resistance exercise program. We hypothesized that a possible increase in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) as a result of the larger skeletal muscle mass might be responsible for the less adipose deposition. Therefore, the effect of the timing of a protein supplement after resistance exercise on body composition and the RMR was investigated in 17 slightly overweight men. The subjects participated in a 12-week weight reduction program consisting of mild energy restriction (17% energy intake reduction) and a light resistance exercise using a pair of dumbbells (3–5 kg). The subjects were assigned to two groups. Group S ingested a protein supplement (10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate, 3.3 g fat and one-third of recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamins and minerals) immediately after exercise. Group C did not ingest the supplement. Daily intake of both energy and protein was equal between the two groups and the protein intake met the RDA. After 12 weeks, the bodyweight, skinfold thickness, girth of waist and hip and percentage bodyfat significantly decreased in the both groups, however, no significant differences were observed between the groups. The fat-free mass significantly decreased in C, whereas its decrease in S was not significant. The RMR and post-meal total energy output significantly increased in S, while these variables did not change in C. In addition, the urinary nitrogen excretion tended to increase in C but not in S. These results suggest that the RMR increase observed in S might be associated with an increase in body protein synthesis.