• blepharophimosis;
  • BPES;
  • blepharoptosis surgery;
  • congenital ptosis


Purpose: To determine the optimal age for surgical correction of blepharophimosis. Associated features and their effects on incidence of amblyopia were also investigated.

Methods: The study was a retrospective case series of 28 patients with blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome presenting to a tertiary referral eyelid, lacrimal and orbital clinic.

Results: Amblyopia was present in 39% of patients. Patients with coexistent strabismus had a 64% incidence of amblyopia compared to 24% for those without strabismus. Hypermetropia was present in 43% of patients and 7% were myopic. Significant astigmatism was found in 40% of patients, but these factors did not increase the risk of amblyopia. Patients with severe ptosis had lower rates of amblyopia than those with moderate ptosis but had their ptosis corrected at a median age of 2 years compared to 5 years for those with moderate ptosis. There was an 18% incidence of nasolacrimal drainage problems. A good to excellent cosmetic outcome was achieved in 86% of patients. A positive family history was noted in 75% of patients, usually with paternal inheritance.

Conclusions: Patients with blepharophimosis have a high rate of amblyopia. Co-existent strabismus doubles the risk of amblyopia. Ptosis alone causes mild to moderate amblyopia only. Patients with severe ptosis should have their ptosis corrected before 3 years of age, and all other patients should undergo surgery before 5 years of age.