• complete mitochondrial DNA sequence;
  • Japanese sardine;
  • long-PCR;
  • mitogenomics;
  • Sardinops melanostictus


We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome for a Japanese sardine, Sardinops melanostictus (Teleostei: Clupeiformes). The entire genome was purified by gene amplification using long polymerase chain reactions (PCR), and the products were subsequently used as templates for PCR with 30 sets of fish-versatile primers (including three species-specific primers) that amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the entire genome. Direct sequencing of the PCR products demonstrated that the genome [16 881 base pairs (bp)] contained the same 37 mitochondrial structural genes (two ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA, and 13 protein-coding genes) as found in other vertebrates, with the gene order identical to that in typical vertebrates. A major non-coding region between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes (1200 bp) was considered as the control (D-loop) region, as it has several conservative blocks characteristic to this region.