• 17-methyltestosterone;
  • sex control;
  • sex determination;
  • sex-reversal;
  • temperature

ABSTRACT: Functional sex reversal of all-female nigorobuna Carassius carassius grandoculis to phenotypic males was examined by immersion exposure of fry to 17-methyltestosterone (17-MT) and controlled water temperature during early development. Fry were reared in water containing different concentrations of 17-MT at 24 and 30°C for 80 days starting 20 days after hatching. Although the fish exposed to 0.1 and 1.0 μg/L 17-MT at 24°C were all male, treatment with 10.0 μg/L 17-MT resulted in 43% females. Twenty-two percent males appeared in the control treatment at 30°C but the control at 24°C was entirely female. The proportion of males in treatments exposed to 0.01– 1.0 μg/L 17-MT at 30°C was slightly lower than in the respective treatments at 24°C. These results indicate that the phenotypic expression of sex in nigorobuna is thermolabile and that sex determination is under the control of genetic factors and temperature. Also, control of temperature during early development has been shown to be important for the production of all-female offspring for use as breeding stock for pond culture of fish suitable for preparation as ‘funazushi’.