Adenosine A1 receptors antagonistically and specifically modulate the binding and functional characteristics of dopamine D1 receptors. In the striatum this interaction seems to take place in the GABAergic strionigro-strioentopeduncular neurons, where both receptors are colocalized. D1 receptors in the strionigro-strioentopeduncular neurons are involved in the increased striatal expression of immediate-early genes induced by the systemic administration of psychostimulants and D1 receptor agonists. Previous results suggest that a basal expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos tonically facilitates the functioning of strionigro-strioentopeduncular neurons and facilitates D1 receptor-mediated motor activation. The role of A1 receptors in the modulation of the expression of striatal D1 receptor-regulated immediate-early genes and the D1 receptor-mediated motor activation was investigated in rats with a unilateral lesion of the ascending dopaminergic pathways. The systemic administration of the A1 agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased the number of contralateral turns induced by the D1 agonist SKF 38393 (3 mg/kg). Higher doses of CPA (0.5 mg/kg) were necessary to inhibit the turning behaviour induced by the D2 agonist quinpirole (0.1 mg/kg). By using in situ hybridization it was found that CPA (0.1 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the SKF 38393-induced increase in the expression of NGFI-A and c-fos mRNA levels in the dopamine-denervated striatum. The increase in jun-B mRNA expression could only be inhibited with the high dose of CPA (0.5 mg/kg). A stronger effect of the A1 agonist was found in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) compared with the dorsal striatum (dorsolateral caudate-putamen). The results indicate the existence of antagonistic A1–D1 receptor–receptor interactions in the dopamine-denervated striatum controlling D1 receptor transduction at supersensitive D1 receptors.