The hippocampus is particularly enriched with neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and NPY receptors including the Y1, Y2 and Y5 subtypes. We have previously reported on the enrichment of cultured rat hippocampal neurons in specific [125I][Leu31,Pro34]PYY/BIBP3226-sensitive (Y1) binding sites and Y1 receptor mRNAs [St-Pierre et al. (1998) Br. J. Pharmacol., 123, p183]. We have now identified which cell types express the Y1 receptor. The majority of Y1 receptors, visualized using either the radiolabeled probe [125I][Leu31,Pro34]PYY or two antibodies directed against distinct domains of the Y1 receptor, was expressed in neurons as revealed by neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunostaining. One antibody was directed against the second extracelllular loop of the Y1 receptor (amino acids 185–203) whereas the second was directed against the intracellular C-terminal loop (amino acids 355–382). The labelling was evident over both perikarya and processes. Neurons labelled by the various Y1 receptor probes were mostly glutamate-positive as revealed by double immunostaining. Most interestingly, a number of NPY-positive cultured hippocampal neurons were also enriched with the Y1 receptor, suggesting that this subtype may act as an autoreceptor to regulate NPY release in the hippocampus. These results thus provide an anatomical basis for the modulation of glutamate and NPY release by the Y1 receptor in the hippocampus.