In the rat, postsynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptors medial prefrontal cortex control the activity of the serotonergic system through changes in the activity of pyramidal neurons projecting to the dorsal raphe nucleus. Here we extend these observations to mouse brain. The prefrontal cortex expresses abundant 5- hydroxytryptamine2A receptors, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blots and in situ hybridization procedures. The application of the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A/2C agonist DOI (100 µm) by reverse dialysis in the medial prefrontal cortex doubled the local release of 5-hydroxytryptamine. This effect was reversed by coperfusion of tetrodotoxin, and by the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor antagonist M100907, but not by the 5-hydroxytryptamine2C antagonist SB-242084. The effect of DOI was also reversed by prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), BAY × 3702 (5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor agonist), NBQX (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate/kainic acid antagonist) and 1S,3S-ACPD (mGluR II/III agonist), but not by dizocilpine (N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist). α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate mimicked the 5-hydroxytryptamine elevation produced by DOI, an effect also reversed by BAY × 3702. Likewise, the coperfusion of classical (chlorpromazine, haloperidol) and atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzapine) fully reversed the 5-hydroxytryptamine elevation induced by DOI. These observations suggest that DOI increases 5-hydroxytryptamine release in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex through the activation of local 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptors by an impulse-dependent mechanism that involves/requires the activation of local α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate receptors. This effect is reversed by ligands of receptors present in the medial prefrontal cortex, possibly in pyramidal neurons, which are involved in the action of antipsychotic drugs. In particular, the reversal by classical antipsychotics may involve blockade of α1-adrenoceptors, whereas that of atypical antipsychotics may involve 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptors and α1-adrenoceptors.