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Keywords:

  • Beta diversity;
  • complementarity;
  • efficiency;
  • reserve selection

Minimum complementary sets of sites that represent each species at least once have been argued to provide a nominal core reserve network and the starting point for regional conservation programs. However, this approach may be inadequate if there is a tendency to represent several species at marginal areas within their ranges, which may occur if high efficiency results from preferential selection of sites in areas of ecological transition. Here we use data on the distributions of birds in South Africa and Lesotho to explore this idea. We found that for five measures that are expected to reflect the location of areas of ecological transition, complementary sets tend to select higher values of these measures than expected by chance. We recommend that methods for the identification of priority areas for conservation that incorporate viability concerns be preferred to minimum representation sets, even if this results in more costly reserve networks.