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Bacteriophage PBS1 of Bacillus subtilis was rapidly adsorbed on montmorillonite (M) and kaolinite (K), and adsorption was maximal after 30 min on both clays. There was no correlation between adsorption and the cation exchange capacity of the clays. Studies with sodium metaphosphate (a polyanion that interacts with positively charged sites on clay) indicated that positively charged sites on K were primarily responsible for the adsorption of the phage, whereas other mechanisms appeared to be involved in adsorption of the phage on M. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic analyses showed that the phage partially intercalated M. Survival of the phage was increased by adsorption on the clays, and adsorbed phage maintained its ability to transduce bacterial cells for at least 30 days (the longest time studied) after the preparation of the clay–phage complexes. Electron microscopic observations indicated that transduction by the clay–phage complexes was primarily the result of the phage detaching from the clays in the presence of host cells.