Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria are leguminous tree species widely grown for timber in Indonesia and other tropical countries, yet little is known about the identity of their rhizobial symbionts. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PRS) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was used along with sequencing to assess the diversity of 57 rhizobia isolated from nodules of A. mangium and P. falctaria in Indonesia. In total, 26 rhizobia isolated from A. mangium were analysed by PRS and sequencing. The PRS patterns indicated that 12 (46%) clustered with Bradyrhizobium elkanii, 13 (50%) with B. lianoningense/japonicum and one (4%) with Mesorhizobium loti. Thirty-one isolates were analysed from P. falcataria: five (16%) clustered with B. elkanii and 26 (84%) with B. lianoningense/japonicum. These results were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of sequences. Intraspecific diversity of the 16S rRNA genes from rhizobia nodulating A. mangium and P. falcataria revealed by PRS was low, only one genotype was found within the isolates that clustered with B. elkanii and two within the B. liaoningense/japonicum group. These Bradyrhizobium species are apparently ubiquitous throughout the Indonesian archipelago and it is clear why the two tree species are able to successfully establish outside their native range without the need for inoculation with indigenous rhizobia.